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OCCUPATIONAL CANCER Funded by the Netherlands embassy, Ankara, Turkey.

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Presentation on theme: "OCCUPATIONAL CANCER Funded by the Netherlands embassy, Ankara, Turkey."— Presentation transcript:

1 OCCUPATIONAL CANCER Funded by the Netherlands embassy, Ankara, Turkey

2 Learning Objectives Knowing about common hazards for occupational cancer in metal sector Be able to identify the cancer risks for metal sector workers 2

3 3 Introduction.. One of every two or three individuals in the industrialized world will develop some type of cancer during their lifetimes Approximately 3-10% of all human cancers are thought to be caused by occupational exposure to carcinogens It is estimated that approximately 20,000 cancer deaths and 40,000 new cases of cancer each year in the U.S. are attributable to occupation

4 4 Exposure to carcinogens at work place Environmental exposure to carcinogens Having certain medical conditions Diet and Personnel habits Personal characteristics Family History Risk of developing a particular cancer

5 Induction period 3-5 years for radiation or toxin induced Leukemia 40 or more asbestos-induced Mesothelioma For most tumors about 12-25 years

6 The most common cancers associated with occupational exposure: lung and pleura bladder skin laryngeal nasal cavity leukemia throat lymphoma soft-tissue sarcomas liver

7 7 Most widespread carcinogens at work : Solar radiation Passive smoking Crystalline silica Diesel engine exhausts Radon Wood dust Lead and its inorganic compounds Benzene Asbestos Formaldehyde Chromium VI

8 Cancer Registry by Industry Nasopharyngeal: carpenters and other blue collar special trade construction Colorectal: machinery manufacturing, printing Liver: general construction and rubber and plastics Gallbladder: electrical equipment Lung: primary metals, shipbuilding, construction, and stone, clay, and glass Mesothelioma: shipbuilding and asbestos manufacturing Source : New Jersey cancer registration - USA

9 Cancer Registry by Industry Breast: (females) chemical and pharmaceutical Bladder: (males) apparel and textile industries. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: – (females) printing – (male) bakers and motor vehicle manufacturing Lymphocytic leukemia: chemical and construction Source : New Jersey cancer registration - USA

10 Lung cancer (Steenland, 1996) silica asbestos diesel engine exhaust radon progeny arsenic chromium, beryllium, nickel, and cadmium acrylonitrile

11 Cutting fluid exposure (Eisen, 1992) 85% increase of laryngeal cancer (also stomach)

12 International Agency of Research on Cancers IARC

13 IARC Evaluations Dimensions and Groups 13 Types of evidence Human Animal Other - mutagenicity - genotoxicity - metabolism - etc. Group 1Carcinogenic to humans 2AProbably carcinogenic to humans 2BPossibly carcinogenic to humans 3Not classifiable 4Not carcinogenic to humans

14 Numbers of occupational carcinogens and high risk occupations and industries designated by the IARC Monograph Programme, 1971-2003 14 Siemiatycki et al, Environ Hlth Persp, 2004, MixturesOccupations Groups & Agents& Industries 1(definite) 28 12 2A(probable) 27 3 2B(possible) 113 4

15 Lung cancer (Exposures) Tobacco smoking is responsible for nearly 90% of all lung cancers. Second-hand smoke Byproducts of fossil fuel Air pollution Insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables High doses of ionizing radiation Asbestos Radon chloromethyl ethers Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Inorganic arsenic Chromium Nickel Mustard Gas Generalworkplaces

16 Mesothelioma (exposure) Asbestosis (trivial contact) Crocidolite: the most potent carcinogen

17 Mesothelioma (prevention) OSHA PEL (1970) :5 Fiber/cm3 (1986):2 fiber/cm3 now: 0.1 fiber/cm3 Asbestos ban : since 1989 by EPA

18 Asbestos Ban (1989)

19 Bladder cancer (exposure) The most important risk factor is cigarette smoking. Heavy coffee consumption (Possible risk factors ) Bladder infection with schistosoma Cyclophosphamide Long-term use of pain killers containing phenacetin, Urinary tract infections or low urine flow Genetic factors Benzidine 2-naphthylamine Occupations in the dye, leather or rubber industry Chlornaphazine 4 chlorotoluidine Phenacetine Generalworkplace

20 Bladder cancer (prevention) Avoidance of exposure Medical monitoring : Urinary cytology (75% Sen. 99.9 Spes.) Immunocytology

21 Liver cancer (hepatic angiosarcoma) (exposure) Vinyl chloride Arsenic Copper, Lead, Zinc Thorotrast (thorium dioxide) 1930-1955

22 Liver cancer (hepatic angiosarcoma) (prevention) Avoidance of exposure Medical monitoring (history, Ph/E, CBC, LFT, Ultrasonography)

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