Presentation on theme: "Lesson Info Lesson Title Related Standards AZJapanese, German, and Italian internments and POW camps CADiscuss the constitutional issues and impact of."— Presentation transcript:
Lesson Info Lesson Title Related Standards AZJapanese, German, and Italian internments and POW camps CADiscuss the constitutional issues and impact of events on the U.S. home front, including the internment of Japanese Americans (e.g., Fred Korematsu v. United States of America) and the restrictions on German and Italian resident aliens; the response of the administration to Hitler's atrocities against Jews and other groups; the roles of women in military production; and the roles and growing political demands of African Americans. FLExamine causes, course, and consequences of World War II on the United States and the world. FLExplain the impact of World War II on domestic government policy. GAExplain the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the internment of Japanese-Americans, German-Americans, and Italian-Americans. MIinternment of Japanese-Americans NYThe war's impact on minorities NYIncarceration of West Coast Japanese- Americans; Executive Order 9066; Korematsu v. United States (1944) TXanalyze major issues of World War II, including the Holocaust; the internment of German, Italian, and Japanese Americans and Executive Order 9066; and the development of conventional and atomic weapons TXexplain constitutional issues raised by federal government policy changes during times of significant events, including World War I, the Great Depression, World War II, the 1960s, and 9/11 VAexplaining the internment of Japanese Americans during the war VAdescribing the role of all-minority military units, including the Tuskegee Airmen and Nisei regiments
Vocabulary internmentDefinition goes here NiseiDefinition goes here fifth columnDefinition goes here exclusion zoneDefinition goes here reparationsDefinition goes here Recurring:espionage, constitutionality, executive order Lesson Title
Internment and the Constitution
The December 7, 1941, attack killed more than 2,400 Americans. Japan’s Attack on Pearl Harbor
Territory1895 Expansion Acquisitions
Inflammatory Reports. [P]rior to December 7, 1941, Japanese spies on the island of Oahu.... collected and, through various channels transmitted, information to the Japanese Empire. Roberts Commission January 28, 1942
Presidential executive orders become law thirty days after they are published. This executive order authorized the military to exclude any person from any area of the country. 100,000 Japanese Americans were ordered to leave their homes. Roosevelt’s Reaction: Executive Order 9066
By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:
Minority military units How did the US government imprison Japanese Americans during WWII? Was it justified? Korematsu v. US Was it justified? Internment Executive Order 9066
Fred Korematsu ( ) Was an American citizen Refused to comply with internment orders Was convicted of violating military orders and taken to an internment camp Appealed his case to the Supreme Court Courtesy of the family of Fred T. Korematsu
Japanese American internment violated the Constitution. Korematsu v. US: Korematsu’s Argument No evidence suggested that Korematsu posed a threat. No judge or jury had convicted Korematsu of a crime. Racial discrimination No threat of a Japanese invasion existed. Military leaders displayed racist motivation. No due process The 5th Amendment guarantees a fair trial. The 14th Amendment guarantees equal protection.
Internment was constitutional and necessary to protect America’s West Coast. Korematsu v. US: The Supreme Court’s Decision No evidence suggested that Korematsu posed a threat. No judge or jury had convicted Korematsu of a crime. No threat of a Japanese invasion existed. Military leaders displayed racist motivation. There was not enough time to conduct trials or hearings for each Japanese American. The need to protect against espionage outweighed Korematsu’s rights. No due process Racial discrimination
Controversy over the Supreme Court’s Decision I don't want any of them here. They are a dangerous element. There is no way to determine their loyalty... It makes no difference whether he is an American citizen, he is still a Japanese. – General John DeWitt, 1943 The arguments for internment are made of “misinformation, half-truths and insinuations that for years have been directed against Japanese Americans by people with racial and economic prejudices.” – Justice Frank Murphy, 1944
Ending Internment Internment ended in 1944 before the end of the war. The Supreme Court ruled that the military could not hold citizens any longer than necessary. Internees were free to return to their homes.
Consequences of Internment Homes and businesses were vandalized. Property was lost or stolen. Property had been sold before internment. Threats of violence and discrimination were made. Services were denied.
Reparations Actions that attempt to make up for past mistakes Civil Liberties Act of 1988 gave internees: official apologies granted by the president money – $20,000 per survivor the reversal of convictions for dissent or draft protest