Presentation on theme: "Some Background Western countries have been exploiting Asia and treating Asia’s peoples with great prejudice for centuries. The 19 th century Western."— Presentation transcript:
Some Background Western countries have been exploiting Asia and treating Asia’s peoples with great prejudice for centuries. The 19 th century Western carving up of China had been a warning to Japan. Japan realized that to retain their independence and national character they had to adopt some Western ideas, and quickly. In particular, Japan copied Western military ideas. Japan ’ s modern military then set about finding ways to promote Japanese interests abroad. China was defeated in battle in 1894-5 and Japan got influence on the mainland and Taiwan. This was the First Sino-Japanese War. (Sino=Chinese)
The Japanese Empire Japan has a severe lack of natural resources. Prior to 1941, the U.S. had been selling fuel and metal to Japan, which Japan was using to build its military. Nearby Manchuria had plenty of coal, plus industries and ports. China had already been carved up by the Western powers; why shouldn ’ t Japan do the same?
The Emperor Hirohito 1926-1989 The Emperor Showa of Japan. He had complete control over, and commanded complete loyalty from his subjects. It was his responsibility for starting and ending the wars against China, USA, Britain etc. He was protected from prosecution in 1945 by the US who needed him to keep Japan from collapsing.
Trade Embargo Against Japan Starting around 1940, the U.S., Australia and the U.K., began an embargo against Japan Japan obtained the majority of its resources (especially fuel and oil) from other countries By blocking trade to Japan, who was already suffering from sever economic recession, they economically drained Japan This backfired and enticed Japan to use its military force to get the resources it wanted
Was the U.S. Seen as a Threat? July, 1941, U.S. moved the Pacific fleet toward Japan and stationed long range bombers in Pearl Harbor and Wake Island Also, U.S. moved fleets to San Francisco Bay and increased military presence in the Philippines
Wake Island Hawaiian Islands Japan San Francisco Bay Philippines
Japan Takes the First Shot December 7, 1941, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, U.S. military base in Hawaii – Surprise! 2,402 Americans killed, 1,282 wounded, numerous ships and aircraft destroyed Intended to prevent the U.S. from interfering with Japan’s imperial plans in Southeast Asia – Whoops! Direct cause for U.S. entry into WWII – December 8, U.S. declared war on Japan
Why Internment? Many Americans thought Japanese-Americans were planted here in case of war Many Americans saw all Japanese-Americans as potential collaborators Interning Japanese-Americans was seen as a “military necessity,” despite there being no evidence to suggest so
Executive Order 9066 Signed by Roosevelt in February, 1942 Authorized the military to designate areas from which certain people could be excluded And to designate certain areas as military zones – War Relocation Authority, Relocation Centers Paved the way for internment of about 110,000 Japanese-Americans ≈70% of those interned were American citizens!
Korematsu vs. United States Fred Korematsu was a Japanese-American man who decided to stay in California and knowingly violate internment laws Korematsu argued that the Executive Order 9066 was unconstitutional He was arrested and convicted In 1944, Supreme Court sided with the government, ruling that the exclusion order was constitutional and that the need to protect against espionage outweighed Korematsu’s rights as an individual and the rights of Japanese-American citizens
9066 Rescinded January 2, 1945, internment was officially ended Last camp closed in 1946 The freed internees were given $25 and a train ticket to their former homes Most remained in the US, some emigrated to Japan
Apology In 1988, congressed passed the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 – The legislation said that government actions were based on "race prejudice, war hysteria, and a failure of political leadership” – Awarded $20,000 to each surviving internee, totaling $1.6 billion in reparations of Japanese- Americans
In 1998, Fred Korematsu was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom