Presentation on theme: "NAPOLEON BONAPARTE (1799-1815). BACKGROUND Born in 1769 in Corsica Went to military school in north France; 1785: at age of 16 became a lieutenant."— Presentation transcript:
NAPOLEON BONAPARTE ( )
BACKGROUND Born in 1769 in Corsica Went to military school in north France; 1785: at age of 16 became a lieutenant in the artillery Joined the army of the Legislative Assembly during the revolution
EARLY CAREER Defended France against an attack by royalist rebels in hailed as savior of the French republic appointed by Directory to lead French army vs. Austria and the Kingdom of Sardinia- won many victories in Italy and Austria Led an expedition to Egypt to protect French trade interests- not successful-Napoleon defeated by the British- Napoleon kept reports out of the press
1799: COUP D’ETAT Nov. 9- Napoleon put in charge of the military Nov. 10- Napoleon’s troops drove out one chamber of the national legislature; legislature voted to dissolve the Directory Napoleon became first consul as a result of a plebiscite (vote of the people) Napoleon crowns himself emperor
Napoleon as emperor- what does he look like?
ANSWER: A King!!!
Napoleon crowns himself emperor
Who traditionally crowned the emperor? What was Napoleon trying to show here?
This (again) proves that “absolute power corrupts absolutely!!!”
Napoleon’s Domestic Policy (after he centralized power in his own hands) brings order to France
ACTIONS/REFORMS: The Economy SSet up a fairer tax code SSet up a national bank SStabilized currency GGave state loans to businesses
ACTIONS/REFORMS: Government and Society Appointed officials by merit Fired corrupt officials Created lycees (public schools) Created a uniform code of laws: Napoleonic Code
ACTIONS/REFORMS: Religion Recognized Catholicism as “faith of Frenchmen” Signed concordat with Pope Retained seized church lands
HOMEWORK Which goals of the revolution did Napoleon achieve? If you had been a member of the bourgeoisie in Napoleon’s France, would you have been satisfied with the results of Napoleon’s actions? Why or why not? Based on Napoleon’s reforms at home, was Napoleon a better or worse leader at this point than Louis XVI? Explain.
THOUGHT QUESTION: Based on Napoleon’s Reforms at home, is Napoleon a better or worse leader at this point than Louis XVI? Explain.
HOMEWORK Create a cover page for Napoleon on page 9 in your notebook that includes: A picture of Napoleon (drawn or printed out) A quote that best applies to Napoleon with explanation Ten words/adjectives “splashed” on the page to describe who Napoleon was At least 3 colors
NAPOLEON: A hero to some, an evil force to others
NAPOLEON QUOTE: “Frenchmen, without a doubt, you will see in what I did that I am a soldier who supports liberty and am a citizen who is devoted to the Republic”
NAPOLEON QUOTE: “I am destined to change the FACE of the world”
Read “How Did France Change Under Napoleon” How was Napoleon’s rule different from Louis XVI’s? How was it similar? Show these differences and similarities in a Venn Diagram.
2. In what ways did Napoleon reform the education system in France? He set up public schools where any MALE could attend regardless of social standing Set up public schools-primary, secondary, lycees (military schools), and technical schools Science and math were important subjects in secondary schools
3. Which aspects of Napoleon’s education system did not change? Primary schools remained the same as before Poor women were still not encouraged to go to school
4. In what ways were the governments of King Louis XVI (pre-Revolution) and Napoleon different? There was no National Assembly under Louis but there were 2 National Assemblies under Napoleon Louis XVI had total power, but under Napoleon, all MEN could vote
5. In what ways were they similar? Both took total power After 1804 (when Napoleon crowned himself emperor), there were no elections as there were no elections under Louis
6. Read the Napoleonic Code. List the points of the code which you think are fair/unfair.
FAIR All people were declared equal before the law. There were no longer any special privileges for nobles, churchmen, or rich people Feudal rights were ended Trial by Jury was guaranteed Religious Freedom was guaranteed Parents were given powers over their children
REASONS All of these rights guarantee freedoms for all regardless of social standing Parents should have more rights than their children as long as their reasonable
UNFAIR Wives were not allowed to sell or give away property A wife could only own property with her husband’s consent in writing Fathers were allowed to imprison their children for any time up to a month
REASONS Women do not have equal rights- only based on gender Parents should not be able to imprison their children
7. How did Napoleon try to restrict individual rights and freedoms? He had a secret police force which from 1810 could arrest people without trial He tried to censor and control the newspapers Free speech was not allowed in France or the French Empire
8. Why do you think Napoleon felt it was so important to control the press? “If the press is not controlled, I shall not remain three days in power” -Napoleon Free press would cause debate of ideas, which is what led to the overthrow of Louis XVI
9. How did Napoleon try to control religion in France? He said that Bishops are to be chosen only by himself (Napoleon) Napoleon crowned HIMSELF emperor of France- to show the French that he was in charge
10. What was the appeal of Napoleon to the peasants, nobility?
PEASANTS AAllowed peasants to keep land RRestored Catholic Church to former importance NNo longer had to pay tithes
Nobility NNobles offered ‘king-like’ stability CCreated titles for some SSet up the “Legion of Honour”
11.Read some of the things said by Napoleon (on all of the sheets). What do these extracts tell us about Napoleon’s attitude towards: a. His role as Emperor? b. Women? c. The Media? d. The lower classes?
His role as Emperor After 1804, there were no elections After 1810 he imprisoned people without trial He took power over the church
Women Women are only good for getting married and having children Women should not participate in government or get a public education Women are subordinate to their husbands Women are not equal to men
The Media The Media should be controlled The media should put himself (Napoleon) into a positive light
The lower classes ““The ignorant class will no longer exercise their influence on making laws or on government” BBUT: Napoleon did try to appease the peasants- see question 10 a.
12. How did Napoleon improve France’s cities and towns? He ordered the building of new roads, canals, and bridges Invested in improving older buildings, especially in Paris Planned a better network of roads for Paris
DIFFERENCES LOUIS XVI Allowed only the privileged to go to school There was no National Assembly Louis XVI had total power Louis XVI born into position of King Could put you into prison without charge Clergy (church) held a high gov’t position, owned a lot of land, paid few taxes Only members of the first and second estates Had rights, privileges Economy was unstable under Louis Officials were appointed based on rank NAPOLEON allowed everyone to go to school There were 2 National Assemblies All men could vote Napoleon acquired position through a coup d’etat Everyone was equal in the courts, no one was put into prison without a trial UNTIL 1810 Although Catholicism was recognized as the state religion, Napoleon retained church lands Men (not women) had more rights under Napoleon, Such as equalized taxation Economy was stabilized under Napoleon Officials were appointed based on merit
SIMILARITIES Both could not be voted out of power Both controlled the newspapers and freedom of speech After 1810, Napoleon used a secret police force which imprisoned people without a fair trial Both were (or became) corrupt Both offered “king-like” stability
Napoleon’s Grand Empire 1804: Napoleon creates an empire.
Napoleon was happy to be emperor of France, BUT… HE WAS BORED!!! (He had dreams of building a huge empire)
ACTION Napoleon sent 23,000 soldiers to Saint Domingue to get colony back after a slave uprising by Toussaint L’Ouverture (1803)
GOAL To maintain an overseas empire
RESULT (S) Slaves in Saint Domingue were difficult to defeat Thousands of French soldiers died of yellow fever Napoleon gave up hope of overseas empire- focused his attention on conquering Europe
ACTION Napoleon sold Louisiana Territory to the U.S. for $15 million
GOAL To conquer Europe- use monies from Louisiana Purchase to do so Help build up the U.S. to at some point humble Great Britain
RESULT(S) Sold Louisiana for $15 mil;,lost opportunity to have an overseas empire
ACTION Fought against Third Coalition (Great Britain, Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Sweden)
GOAL To conquer Europe
RESULT(S) Beat the Third Coalition Countries in the Third Coalition were now under Napoleon’s control Napoleon is on his way to conquer Europe!
ACTION Battle of Trafalgar- naval defeat against Britain off the coast of Spain
GOAL To defeat/conquer Great Britain
RESULT(S) Proved supremacy of the British navy Forced Napoleon to give up hopes of invading Britain
NAPOLEON’S 3 MISTAKES
MISTAKEEFFECT ON EMPIRE NAPOLEON’S 3 MISTAKES
MISTAKE #1 The Continental System ( ) Napoleon’s policy to forbid the continent of Europe to trade or communicate with Great Britain Purpose: to weaken Britain’s economy, make continental Europe self-sufficient
EFFECT ON EMPIRE WWeakened France economically (deprived of cotton and “addictive substances” from Britain i.e. coffee, sugar, tobacco, cocoa) BBritain was hurt too but were able to smuggle goods into Europe through the Baltic and Adriatic Seas
MISTAKE #2 Peninsular War- Napoleon invaded Portugal (for not obeying the Continental System) through Spain Spanish rebel- fear that Napoleon will weaken the Catholic Church Napoleon makes his brother Joseph the King of Spain
EFFECT ON EMPIRE Napoleon lost 300,000 troops Napoleon lost military support European countries (GB, Prussia, Spain (rebels), and Russia) unite against France Turns the tide against Napoleon
MISTAKE #3 Invasion of Russia- Napoleon fears that Alexander I will take Poland Russia sold grain to Great Britain
EFFECT ON EMPIRE RRussia used a scorched earth policy- burned Moscow, fields, killed livestock, NNapoleon went in with 600,000 troops, left with 10,000- a defeated man
Create a 6 event timeline of Napoleon’s downfall Use pages in text
NAPOLEON’S DOWNFALL Napoleon is defeated by Prussia and Russia, forced to abdicate (give up) throne Napoleon is exiled to Elba; Louis XVIII becomes King 1815-Napoleon escapes from Elba, returns to France
NAPOLEON’S DOWNFALL (CONT.) 1815-Napoleon regains the throne in France for a “Hundred Days” Napoleon is defeated once again by European powers at Waterloo Napoleon is exiled to St. Helena Napoleon dies