3 BACKGROUND Born in 1769 in Corsica Went to military school in north France; 1785: at age of 16 became a lieutenant in the artilleryJoined the army of the Legislative Assembly during the revolution
4 EARLY CAREERDefended France against an attack by royalist rebels in hailed as savior of the French republic1796- appointed by Directory to lead French army vs. Austria and the Kingdom of Sardinia- won many victories in Italy and AustriaLed an expedition to Egypt to protect French trade interests- not successful-Napoleon defeated by the British- Napoleon kept reports out of the press
5 1799: COUP D’ETAT Nov. 9- Napoleon put in charge of the military Nov. 10- Napoleon’s troops drove out one chamber of the national legislature; legislature voted to dissolve the DirectoryNapoleon became first consul as a result of a plebiscite (vote of the people)1804- Napoleon crowns himself emperor
9 Who traditionally crowned the emperor Who traditionally crowned the emperor? What was Napoleon trying to show here?
10 This (again) proves that “absolute power corrupts absolutely!!!”
11 Napoleon’s Domestic Policy (after he centralized power in his own hands) brings order to France
12 ACTIONS/REFORMS: The Economy Set up a fairer tax codeSet up a national bankStabilized currencyGave state loans to businesses
13 ACTIONS/REFORMS: Government and Society Appointed officials by meritFired corrupt officialsCreated lycees (public schools)Created a uniform code of laws: Napoleonic Code
14 ACTIONS/REFORMS: Religion Recognized Catholicism as “faith of Frenchmen”Signed concordat with PopeRetained seized church lands
15 HOMEWORK Which goals of the revolution did Napoleon achieve? If you had been a member of the bourgeoisie in Napoleon’s France, would you have been satisfied with the results of Napoleon’s actions? Why or why not?Based on Napoleon’s reforms at home, was Napoleon a better or worse leader at this point than Louis XVI? Explain.
16 THOUGHT QUESTION:Based on Napoleon’s Reforms at home, is Napoleon a better or worse leader at this point than Louis XVI? Explain.
17 HOMEWORKCreate a cover page for Napoleon on page 9 in your notebook that includes:A picture of Napoleon (drawn or printed out)A quote that best applies to Napoleon with explanationTen words/adjectives “splashed” on the page to describe who Napoleon wasAt least 3 colors
18 NAPOLEON: A hero to some, an evil force to others
19 NAPOLEON QUOTE:“Frenchmen, without a doubt, you will see in what I did that I am a soldier who supports liberty and am a citizen who is devoted to the Republic”
20 NAPOLEON QUOTE:“I am destined to change the FACE of the world”
21 Read “How Did France Change Under Napoleon” How was Napoleon’s rule different from Louis XVI’s? How was it similar? Show these differences and similarities in a Venn Diagram.
23 2. In what ways did Napoleon reform the education system in France? He set up public schools where any MALE could attend regardless of social standingSet up public schools-primary, secondary, lycees (military schools), and technical schoolsScience and math were important subjects in secondary schools
24 3. Which aspects of Napoleon’s education system did not change? Primary schools remained the same as beforePoor women were still not encouraged to go to school
25 4. In what ways were the governments of King Louis XVI (pre-Revolution) and Napoleon different? There was no National Assembly under Louis but there were 2 National Assemblies under NapoleonLouis XVI had total power, but under Napoleon, all MEN could vote
26 5. In what ways were they similar? Both took total powerAfter 1804 (when Napoleon crowned himself emperor), there were no elections as there were no elections under Louis
27 6. Read the Napoleonic Code 6. Read the Napoleonic Code. List the points of the code which you think are fair/unfair.
28 FAIRAll people were declared equal before the law. There were no longer any special privileges for nobles, churchmen, or rich peopleFeudal rights were endedTrial by Jury was guaranteedReligious Freedom was guaranteedParents were given powers over their children
29 REASONSAll of these rights guarantee freedoms for all regardless of social standingParents should have more rights than their children as long as their reasonable
30 UNFAIR Wives were not allowed to sell or give away property A wife could only own property with her husband’s consent in writingFathers were allowed to imprison their children for any time up to a month
31 REASONS Women do not have equal rights- only based on gender Parents should not be able to imprison their children
32 7. How did Napoleon try to restrict individual rights and freedoms? He had a secret police force which from 1810 could arrest people without trialHe tried to censor and control the newspapersFree speech was not allowed in France or the French Empire
33 8. Why do you think Napoleon felt it was so important to control the press? “If the press is not controlled, I shall not remain three days in power” -NapoleonFree press would cause debate of ideas, which is what led to the overthrow of Louis XVI
34 9. How did Napoleon try to control religion in France? He said that Bishops are to be chosen only by himself (Napoleon)Napoleon crowned HIMSELF emperor of France- to show the French that he was in charge
35 10. What was the appeal of Napoleon to the peasants, nobility?
36 PEASANTS Allowed peasants to keep land Restored Catholic Church to former importanceNo longer had to pay tithes
37 Nobility Nobles offered ‘king-like’ stability Created titles for some Set up the “Legion of Honour”
38 Read some of the things said by Napoleon (on all of the sheets) Read some of the things said by Napoleon (on all of the sheets). What do these extracts tell us about Napoleon’s attitude towards: a. His role as Emperor? b. Women? c. The Media? d. The lower classes?
39 His role as Emperor After 1804, there were no elections After 1810 he imprisoned people without trialHe took power over the church
40 Women Women are only good for getting married and having children Women should not participate in government or get a public educationWomen are subordinate to their husbandsWomen are not equal to men
41 The Media The Media should be controlled The media should put himself (Napoleon) into a positive light
42 The lower classes“The ignorant class will no longer exercise their influence on making laws or on government”BUT: Napoleon did try to appease the peasants- see question 10 a.
43 12. How did Napoleon improve France’s cities and towns? He ordered the building of new roads, canals, and bridgesInvested in improving older buildings, especially in ParisPlanned a better network of roads for Paris
46 SIMILARITIES Both could not be voted out of power Both controlled the newspapers and freedom of speechAfter 1810, Napoleon used a secret police force which imprisoned people without a fair trialBoth were (or became) corruptBoth offered “king-like” stability
47 Napoleon’s Grand Empire 1804: Napoleon creates an empire.
48 Napoleon was happy to be emperor of France, BUT… HE WAS BORED!!!(He had dreams of building a huge empire)
49 ACTIONNapoleon sent 23,000 soldiers to Saint Domingue to get colony back after a slave uprising by Toussaint L’Ouverture (1803)
69 NAPOLEON’S 3 MISTAKESMISTAKEEFFECT ON EMPIRE1.2.3.
70 MISTAKE #1 The Continental System (1806-1810) Napoleon’s policy to forbid the continent of Europe to trade or communicate with Great BritainPurpose: to weaken Britain’s economy, make continental Europe self-sufficient
73 EFFECT ON EMPIREWeakened France economically (deprived of cotton and “addictive substances” from Britain i.e. coffee, sugar, tobacco, cocoa)Britain was hurt too but were able to smuggle goods into Europe through the Baltic and Adriatic Seas
74 MISTAKE #2 Peninsular War- Napoleon invaded Portugal (for not obeying the Continental System) through SpainSpanish rebel- fear that Napoleon will weaken the Catholic ChurchNapoleon makes his brother Joseph the King of Spain
79 EFFECT ON EMPIRERussia used a scorched earth policy- burned Moscow, fields, killed livestock,Napoleon went in with 600,000 troops, left with 10,000- a defeated man
80 Create a 6 event timeline of Napoleon’s downfall Use pages in text
81 NAPOLEON’S DOWNFALL1814- Napoleon is defeated by Prussia and Russia, forced to abdicate (give up) throne1814- Napoleon is exiled to Elba; Louis XVIII becomes King1815-Napoleon escapes from Elba, returns to France
82 NAPOLEON’S DOWNFALL (CONT.) 1815-Napoleon regains the throne in France for a “Hundred Days”1815- Napoleon is defeated once again by European powers at Waterloo1816- Napoleon is exiled to St. Helena1821- Napoleon dies