Presentation on theme: "Napoleon Consulate to Empire… to Exile! Consulate New Constitution - Really set up Dictatorship (gov’t headed by absolute ruler) Executive Branch - 3."— Presentation transcript:
Consulate New Constitution - Really set up Dictatorship (gov’t headed by absolute ruler) Executive Branch - 3 Consuls Napoleon First Consul - Had concentrated power 1802 - Names himself Consul for Life Approved by Plebiscite, popular vote (99.9%) Napoleon as Consul
Reforms to Restore Order Centralized Gov’t - replaced elected local officials with appointed men Education Under Gov’t - universities, secondary schools Bank of France - everyone paid taxes, gov’t made loans, leveled inflation New Law Code...
Napoleonic Code New Law Code Equality of all citizens before the law Religious toleration Advancement based on merit Guaranteed trial by jury BUT…
Code Placed State Above Individual Limited freedom of speech and press (Censorship!) Codified Inferior Status of Women - Males given extensive authority over wives and children Heavy taxes
Concordat of 1801 Napoleon acknowledged Catholic religion as the religion of the majority while keeping toleration of other religions Napoleon named all bishops who swore allegiance to state, but Pope confirmed Pope agreed to lost lands & state paid clergy
1804 - Napoleon Names Himself Emperor of France! Crowns Himself Emperor as Charlemagne Did!
The Empire Great victories enable Napoleon to reorganize Europe (see map) Holy Roman Empire Ended Formed the Confederation of the Rhine (small German states) Created Grand Duchy of Warsaw - Poland - out of some of Russian, Prussian & Austrian territory Took over Spanish throne (Brother Joseph)
Road to Ruin Battle of Trafalgar - defeated by British Continental System - Ordered all Eur. nations he conquered to stop trade with British - hurt them economically - FAILED Spanish Rebellions - guerillas led attacks (hit and run) –resentment ignited feeling of nationalism - overthrew occupation Invasion of Russia - Harsh winter weakened French - defeated by Russians Battle of Leipzig - Last battle?- Napoleon’s Defeat
Napoleon Abdicates; Exiled to Elba BUT… Returns from exile and reigns again as emperor!!! THE 100 DAYS Battle of Waterloo - Napoleon defeated (again!) by Great Britain, Prussia & Netherlands Napoleon is exiled (again!) & placed under house arrest on island of Saint Helena King Louis XVIII becomes King of France