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Dr Richard A. Ferguson Exercise in older people Musculo-Skeletal Muscle Biology Research Group School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences Loughborough.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr Richard A. Ferguson Exercise in older people Musculo-Skeletal Muscle Biology Research Group School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences Loughborough."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr Richard A. Ferguson Exercise in older people Musculo-Skeletal Muscle Biology Research Group School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences Loughborough University

2 “The biggest issue is loss of function. Not everyone has cancer, not everyone has Alzheimer's, but almost everyone loses function”. David Muller Dean of Medical Education Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City

3 The background issues … Skeletal muscle function Aerobic function

4 THE BIG QUESTIONS

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10 Resistance / strength exercise Frontera et al (1988) Age range 60 – 72 yrs 80% 1-RM (progressive) 3 sets of 8 reps 3 days per week for 12 weeks

11 Even in VERY old people Harridge et al (1999) Age range 85 – 97 yrs 80% 1-RM (progressive) 3 sets of 8 reps 3 days per week for 12 weeks Resistance / strength exercise

12 Even in VERY old people Harridge et al (1999) Age range 85 – 97 yrs 80% 1-RM (progressive) 3 sets of 8 reps 3 days per week for 12 weeks Resistance / strength exercise

13 UK Physical Activity Guidelines

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15 Older adults should also undertake physical activity to improve muscle strength on at least two days a week. UK Physical Activity Guidelines

16 Effects of strength training on physical function

17 Physical function – systematic reviews “…. resistance training increased muscle strength and had a modest significant effect on some measures of physical functioning (e.g., gait speed)”.

18 Physical function – systematic reviews “Evidence shows that older people who exercise their muscles against a force or resistance become stronger. They also improve their performance of simple activities such as walking, climbing steps, or standing up from a chair more quickly. The improvement in activities such as getting out of a chair or stair climbing is generally greater than walking speed” Liu & Latham (2009)

19 Physical function – systematic reviews “Evidence shows that older people who exercise their muscles against a force or resistance become stronger. They also improve their performance of simple activities such as walking, climbing steps, or standing up from a chair more quickly. The improvement in activities such as getting out of a chair or stair climbing is generally greater than walking speed” Liu & Latham (2009)

20 Alternative interventions

21 Narici et al. (2005) Muscle power = force x velocity

22 Alternative interventions Narici et al. (2005) Traditional resistance training velocity

23 Alternative interventions Narici et al. (2005) High velocity resistance training

24 InVEST – Increased Velocity Exercise Specific to Task Bean et al (2009) Age ~74 yrs 3 days per week for 16 weeks NIA – National Institute of Aging strength training program (2 sets of 10) concentric phase performed slowly (3 sec) InVEST – task specific movement pattern concentric phase performed as quickly as possible SPPB – short physical performance battery

25 InVEST – Increased Velocity Exercise Specific to Task Bean et al (2009)

26 InVEST – Increased Velocity Exercise Specific to Task Bean et al (2009)

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28 “human muscle age- related molecular processes appear distinct from the processes directly regulated by those of physical activity”

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30 Marr explained he had fallen into the "terrible" trap of believing what he read in newspapers, which encouraged people to "take very intensive exercise in short bursts - and that's the way to health". He went on: "I went onto a rowing machine and gave it everything I had, and had a strange feeling afterwards - a blinding headache, and flashes of light - served out the family meal, went to bed, woke up the next morning lying on the floor unable to move.

31 Summary Resistance training into later life attenuates the decline in muscle strength Does not necessarily enhance functional ability RESEARCH FUNDING OPPORTUNITIES ;-) Large variability in “responsiveness” to exercise interventions Exercise for older people should be personalised (baseline physiology / genetic screening!!) RESEARCH FUNDING OPPORTUNITIES ;-)

32 THANK YOU


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