Body Composition Cardio-Respiratory Endurance Muscle Strength Muscle Endurance Flexibility Components of Physical Fitness
Muscle Strength The power to exert force over Heavy weights Just a few times In the weight room, to develop strength, lift heavy weights 4-8 repetitions
Muscle Endurance The ability to repeat muscle movement over a long period of time In the weight room, lift lighter weights for 12 – 25 repetitions Aerobic activity will build muscle endurance as you repeat muscle action over a long period of time
Muscle Strength and Endurance These are related in that an increase in one of these components results in some degree of improvement in the other …
Why Improve Muscle Fitness? Helps an individual be more efficient in performing daily tasks Strength and Endurance of the trunk musculature can help prevent low-back pain
Muscle Strength Key Words … Power Burst of Energy Just a few times Heavy
Muscle Endurance Key Words … Repetition Long period of time
Activities and Sports Muscle Strength Field Events: shot, discus, jumping events Sprints Basketball Football Weight lifting Pull-ups (for some people) Certain aspects of most sports (kicking a soccer ball, hitting a baseball, throwing …) Muscle Endurance Distance running/jogging Walking Biking Swimming Skating Dancing Weight lifting Sit-ups Push-ups Soccer Tennis All Aerobic Activities
Terminology 1 Resistance: the force being moved or lifted Load: total # of pounds of resistance lifted Repetitions Maximum : # of consecutive times a specific lift can be done correctly without interruption or rest Set: number of times different lifts in a workout are repeated
Principle of Specificity The type of gain relates to the type of regimen followed in the workout Emphasis on lifting heavy weights for a small # of reps will enhance strength Emphasis on lifting lighter weights for a high # of reps will build muscular endurance
Principle of Progression The best benefits of exercise are gained when starting slowly and gradually increasing the amount over a period of time.
Principle of Overload This is the basis for improving fitness! Overload is a GOOD thing! To become stronger, a muscle must exert force against a resistance that is greater than what is normally encountered.
Terminology 2 Progressive Resistance Exercise: Implies application of the overload principle Once an individual can easily exert a force against a set resistance, the amount of resistance must be increased to produce further strength gains
Frequency How often you should work out For optimal gains in strength, you should workout every other day (or three times per week)
Intensity How hard you should work In the weight room, intensity is measured by the amount of weight you are lifting. In an aerobic activity, intensity is measured by your heart rate.
Intensity Strength: Choose a weight which can be lifted 4 – 8 repetitions maximum Endurance: Choose a weight which can be lifted 12-25 repetitions maximum
Time How long (or duration) you should work out In the weight room, “time” is reflected in the number of sets completed at each station For optimal strength gains, three sets of each lift should be completed during each workout
Muscle Fitness … Review Muscle Strength: The ability to exert force on something heavy, just a few times Muscle Endurance: The ability of the muscles to work over a long period of time
Muscle Fitness … Review Specificity: The type of gain relates to the regimen followed in the workout Progression: Start with light weights and gradually increase Overload: To become stronger, a muscle must exert a force against a resistance which is greater than what is normally encountered
Vocabulary Review Progressive Resistance Exercises Resistance Load Repetitions Maximum Set
Muscle Fitness … Review Frequency: Every other day Intensity: The amount of resistance (weight) Time: Measured in sets … Optimal: 3 sets of each lift