Presentation on theme: "Definitions of Physical Activity, Exercise, and Fitness"— Presentation transcript:
1Definitions of Physical Activity, Exercise, and Fitness
2Physical ActivityThe term “physical activity” describes many forms of movement, including activities that involve the large skeletal muscles.Activities that involve the small skeletal muscles (e.g. playing board games, drawing, writing) are important, but they do not provide the health benefits of activities that involve the large skeletal muscles and require substantial energy expenditure.
3Physical activity is defined by its duration, intensity, and frequency Duration is the amount of time spent participating in a physical activity sessionIntensity is the rate of energy expenditureFrequency is the number of physical activity sessions during a specific time period (e.g. one week).
4Types of Physical Activity Aerobic - light to vigorous-intensity physical activity that requires more oxygen than sedentary behavior and thus promotes cardiovascular fitness and other health benefits (e.g., jumping rope, biking, swimming, running; playing soccer, basketball, or volleyball).Anaerobic – intense physical activity that is short in duration and requires a breakdown of energy sources in the absence of sufficient oxygen. Energy sources are replenished as an individual recovers from the activity. Anaerobic activity (e.g., sprinting during running, swimming, or biking) requires maximal performance during the brief period.Lifestyle – physical activity typically performed on a routine basis (e.g., walking, climbing stairs, mowing or raking the yard), which is usually light to moderate in intensity.Physical activity play – play activity that requires substantial energy expenditure (e.g., playing tag, jumping rope).Play – activity with flexible rules, usually self-selected, for the purpose of having fun.Sports – physical activity that involves competition, scorekeeping, rules, and an outcome that cannot be predetermined. There are two categories of sports: individual and team.Weight-bearing – physical activity that requires people to move their own weight.
5ExerciseExercise consists of activities that are planned and structured, and that maintain or improve one or more of the components of physical fitness.Physical activity suggests a wide variety of activities that promote health and well-being.Exercise is often associated with fitness maintenance or improvement only.
6Types of ExerciseCalisthenics. Isotonic muscle-fitness exercise that overloads muscles by forcing the muscles to work at a higher level than usual.Flexibility (Stretching). Exercise designed to stretch muscles and tendons to increase joint flexibility or range of motion. Specific flexibility exercises need to be done for each part of the body.Isokinetic. Muscle-fitness exercise in which the amount of force equals the amount of resistance, so that no movement occurs.Isotonic. Muscle-fitness exercise in which the amount of force exerted is constant throughout the range of motion, including muscle shortening (concentric contractions), and muscle lengthening (eccentric contractions).Muscle-fitness. Exercise designed to build muscle strength and endurance by overloading the muscles; also called progressive resistance exercise (PRE). Common forms of muscle fitness exercise include isokinetic, isometric, and isotonic.
7FitnessParticipating in physical activity is beneficial to people of all ages. Physical activity contributes to fitness, a state in which people’s health characteristics and behaviors enhance the quality of their lives.
8Types of Fitness Physical fitness Health-related physical fitness A set of physical attributes related to a person’s ability to perform physical activity successfully, without undue strain and with a margin of safety.Health-related physical fitnessA physiological state of well-being that reduces the risk of hypokinetic disease; a basis for participation in sports; and a vigor for the tasks of daily living. Components include cardio-respiratory endurance, muscle strength endurance, flexibility, and body composition.Skill-related physical fitnessCommon components of physical fitness (e.g., agility, balance, coordination, speed, power, reaction time) that enable participation in sports and other physical activities; also called performance or motor fitness.