Presentation on theme: "Body Composition and Diets The number of calories a person burns in a day is affected by how much that person exercises, the amount of fat and muscle in."— Presentation transcript:
Body Composition and Diets The number of calories a person burns in a day is affected by how much that person exercises, the amount of fat and muscle in his or her body, and the person's basal metabolic rate.
Body Composition The percentage of fat tissue and lean tissue in the body Fat is less dense than muscle. Consequently, two individuals could have the same body weight but have completely different body compositions and body dimensions. Factors that determine your desirable weight are: – Age – Height – Gender – Body frame – Basil metabolic rate – Activity level
Body Frame The size and thickness of bones vary from person to person. You can determine if you have a small, medium or large body frame by measuring the circumference of your wrist. Men: Height over 5' 5" – Small = wrist size 5.5" to 6.5" – Medium = wrist size 6.5" to 7.5" – Large = wrist size over 7.5" Women: Height under 5'2" – Small = wrist size less than 5.5" – Medium = wrist size 5.5" to 5.75" – Large = wrist size over 5.75" Height 5'2" to 5' 5" – Small = wrist size less than 6" – Medium = wrist size 6" to 6.25" – Large = wrist size over 6.25" Height over 5' 5" – Small = wrist size less than 6.25" – Medium = wrist size 6.25" to 6.5" – Large = wrist size over 6.5"
Metabolism Metabolism converts the fuel in the food we eat into the energy needed to power everything we do, from moving to thinking to growing. Metabolism works as a balancing act. – constructive metabolism, is all about building and storing: It supports the growth of new cells, the maintenance of body tissues, and the storage of energy for use in the future. During anabolism, small molecules are changed into larger, more complex molecules of carbohydrate, protein, and fat – destructive metabolism, is the process that produces the energy required for all activity in the cells. In this process, cells break down large molecules (mostly carbohydrates and fats) to release energy. This energy release provides fuel for anabolism, heats the body, and enables the muscles to contract and the body to move. As complex chemical units are broken down into more simple substances, the waste products released in the process of catabolism are removed from the body through the skin, kidneys, lungs, and intestines
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) is a measure of the rate at which a person's body "burns" energy, in the form of calories, while at rest. Every year your BMR decreases as you age. BMR burns calories for organ function. Your BMR: – Women: BMR = ( 4.35 x weight in pounds ) + ( 4.7 x height in inches ) - ( 4.7 x age in years ) – Men: BMR = 66 + ( 6.23 x weight in pounds ) + ( 12.7 x height in inches ) - ( 6.8 x age in year )
Metabolic Disorders Hyperthyroidism (pronounced: hi-per-thigh-roy-dih-zum). Hyperthyroidism is caused by an overactive thyroid gland. The thyroid releases too much of the hormone thyroxine, which increases the person's basal metabolic rate (BMR). It causes symptoms such as weight loss, increased heart rate and blood pressure, protruding eyes, and a swelling in the neck from an enlarged thyroid (goiter). The disease may be controlled with medications or through surgery or radiation treatments. Hypothyroidism (pronounced: hi-po-thigh-roy-dih-zum). Hypothyroidism is caused by a nonexistent or underactive thyroid gland, and it results from a developmental problem or a destructive disease of the thyroid. The thyroid releases too little of the hormone thyroxine, so a person's basal metabolic rate (BMR) is low. Not getting treatment for hypothyroidism can lead to brain and growth problems in infants and children. Hypothyroidism slows body processes and causes fatigue, slow heart rate, excessive weight gain, and constipation. Teens with this condition can be treated with oral thyroid hormone to achieve normal levels in the body.
Metabolic Disorders continued Inborn errors of metabolism. Some metabolic diseases are inherited. These conditions are called inborn errors of metabolism. When babies are born, they're tested for many of these metabolic diseases. Inborn errors of metabolism can sometimes lead to serious problems if they're not controlled with diet or medication from an early age. Examples of inborn errors of metabolism include galactosemia (babies born with this inborn error of metabolism do not have enough of the enzyme that breaks down the sugar in milk called galactose) and phenylketonuria (this problem is due to a defect in the enzyme that breaks down the amino acid phenylalanine, which is needed for normal growth and protein production). Teens may need to follow a certain diet or take medications to control metabolic problems they've had since birth. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (pronounced: dye-uh-bee-teez meh-luh-tus). Type 1 diabetes occurs when the pancreas doesn't produce and secrete enough insulin. Symptoms of this disease include excessive thirst and urination, hunger, and weight loss. Over the long term, the disease can cause kidney problems, pain due to nerve damage, blindness, and heart and blood vessel disease. Teens with type 1 diabetes need to receive regular injections of insulin and control blood sugar levels to reduce the risk of developing problems from diabetes. Type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes happens when the body can't respond normally to insulin. The symptoms of this disorder are similar to those of type 1 diabetes. Many children and teens who develop type 2 diabetes are overweight, and this is thought to play a role in their decreased responsiveness to insulin. Some teens can be treated successfully with dietary changes, exercise, and oral medication, but insulin injections are necessary in other cases. Controlling blood sugar levels reduces the risk of developing the same kinds of long-term health problems that occur with type 1 diabetes
Body Composition Essential body fat is the amount of body fat needed for optimal health. Adipose tissue is fat that accumulates around internal organs, within muscles and under skin. Males 11-17% Female 16-24% Higher percentage of adipose tissue the higher your risk for developing diseases. Testing: – Calipers measures skin folds – Underwater weighing: more accurate.
Body Mass Index Preferred weight-for-height standard Healthy weight-for-height is a BMI between 18.5 to 24.9 BMI = ( Weight in Pounds / ( Height in inches x Height in inches ) ) x 703 – ((150 lbs. / 65” x 65”)) x 703 ((150lbs /4225”) x 703= 25 BMI
Diets: How to Gain Weight A body weight that is 10% or more below desired weight is considered underweight. – Malnutrition is a condition in which the body does not get the nutrients required for optimal health. How to Gain Weight… 1.Increase food intake. – To gain a pound a week you need to increase our caloric intake by 3500 calories. Need to take 500 more calories. 2.Follow dietary guidelines – Select broiled, baked or steamed foods instead of fried. 3.Work eating habits and activity levels – Exercise to increase muscle mass
Diet: How to Lose Weight A body weight more than 10 percent the desired body weight is overweight. (over 20% obesity) How to lose weight: 1.Decrease food intake – If you want to lose 2 pounds a week you have to use 1000 more calories each day you take in. – Low calories foods and beverages from each category. 2.Follow the dietary guidelines – Keep low calorie foods between meals. 3.Stay active – Tone muscles 4.Keep a journal
Extreme Diets Liquid diets Fad diets Prescription Medication Starvation Diets Over the Counter diet pills Laxatives and diuretics
Liquid Diets A diet which beverages are substituted for all meals. Once they get off the diet they regain the weight instantly. Used for medical purposes before a bypass surgeries.
Fad DietsWeight Loss Drugs A quick, weight loss strategy that is popular for a short time. – Atkins – Cabbage soup diet Dangerous, addictive, and ineffective Side effects – Headaches – Heart palpitations – Sleeplessness – Dizziness – Rapid pulse rate
Starvation Diet Laxatives and Diuretics Severely restricts calories Body relies on stored fat for energy. High amount of fat in blood stream. Fruity smelling breathe, loss appetite, vomiting Laxatives aid in bowel movements Diuretics increases the amount of urine excreted. Temporary weight loss and can cause dehydration
Emotional Eating Emotional eating is when people use food as a way to deal with feelings instead of to satisfy hunger. – Boredom – Depression – Celebration