Presentation on theme: "Shoulder, Elbow, and Wrist"— Presentation transcript:
1Shoulder, Elbow, and Wrist For the Lecture Final Exam
2The Pectoral GirdleProvides attachment for many muscles that move the upper limbGirdle is very light and upper limbs are mobileOnly clavicle articulates with the axial skeletonSocket of the shoulder joint (glenoid cavity) is shallowGood for flexibility, bad for stability
4Clavicles Extend horizontally across the superior thorax Sternal end articulates with the manubriumAcromial end articulates with scapulaProvide attachment for musclesHold the scapulae and arms laterallyTransmit compression forces from the upper limbs to the axial skeletonSCAPULALies on the dorsal surface of the rib cageLocated between ribs 2–7PLAYShoulder
5Arm Region of the upper limb between the shoulder and elbow Humerus The only bone of the armLongest and strongest bone of the upper limbArticulates with the scapula at the shoulderArticulates with the radius and ulna at the elbowMany structures of the humerus provide sites for muscle attachmentOther structures of the humerus provide articulation sites for other bones
6Forearm Formed from the radius and ulna Proximal ends articulate with the humerusDistal ends articulate with carpalsRadius and ulna articulate with each otherAt the proximal and distal radioulnar jointsThe interosseous membraneInterconnects radius and ulnaIn anatomical position; the radius is lateral and the ulna is medialPLAYElbow
7Proximal Part of the Ulna OlecranonprocessRadial notchof the ulnaOlecranon processHead of radiusHeadTrochlear notchNeckNeck of radiusRadialtuberosityCoronoid processProximal radioulnarjointInterosseousmembraneInterosseousmembraneUlnaUlnaRadiusUlnar notchof the radiusUlnar notch ofthe radiusRadiusHead of ulnaHead of ulnaStyloid processof radiusStyloid processof ulnaDistal radioulnar jointStyloid process of ulna(a) Anterior view(b) Posterior viewStyloid process of radiusFigure 8.4a, b
8Contributes heavily to the wrist joint RADIUSContributes heavily to the wrist jointDistal radius articulates with carpal bonesWhen radius moves, the hand moves with itULNAMain bone responsible for forming the elbow joint with the humerusHinge joint allows forearm to bend on armDistal end is separated from carpals by fibrocartilagePlays little to no role in hand movement
9Proximal Ends of the Radius and Ulna HumerusHumerusCoronoidfossaOlecranonfossaCapitulumMedialepicondyleOlecranonprocessLateralepicondyleMedialepicondyleHead ofradiusTrochleaCoronoidprocess ofulnaHeadRadialtuberosityNeckRadial notchRadiusUlnaUlnaRadius(c) Anterior view at the elbow region(d) Posterior view of extended elbowFigure 8.3c, d
10Location of styloid processes of radius and ulna. Head ofulnaStyloid processof ulna(a) Normal position
12Carpal bones Forms the true wrist—the proximal region of the hand Gliding movements occur between carpalsAre arranged in two irregular rowsProximal row from lateral to medialScaphoid, lunate, triquetrium, and pisiformDistal row from lateral to medialTrapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamateA mnemonic to help remember carpals:Sally left the party to take Carmen home
13Bones of the Hand Phalanges Distal Middle Proximal Metacarpals Head SesamoidbonesShaftCarpalsBase43251HamateCarpals23415CarpalsCapitateTrapeziumHamatePisiformTrapezoidCapitateTriquetrumScaphoidTriquetrumLunateLunateUlnaRadiusUlna(a) Anterior view of right hand(b) Posterior view of right handFigure 8.6a, b
14Metacarpals Metacarpals form the palm Numbered 1–5, beginning with the pollex (thumb)Phalanges form the digitsNamed also by whether it is proximal, intermediate (or middle), or distal.The pollex does not have a middle phalanx.The second middle phalanx refers to the second DIGIT.
15Plane JointsMovement in the transverse or frontal plane only. These are not axial since the movement does not occur around an axis.Examples are the carpal and tarsal bones, between the articular processes of the vertebrae
16Hinge Joints Uniaxial movement Movement around an axis in the sagittal plane only (uniaxial).Examples are the elbow, knee, and IPJ = interphalangeal (finger and toe) joints.There are two types of IPJ’s: Distal (DIPJ) and Proximal (PIPJ).Medial/lateralaxisFlexion and extensionUniaxial movement
17Pivot Joints Rotation movement around a vertical axis (uniaxial). UlnaRadiusVerticalaxisRotationRotation movement around a vertical axis (uniaxial).Examples are between the first two vertebrae and proximal radioulnar joint, where the annular ligament on the ulna encircles the head of the radius
18Condyloid JointsAllows for movement in two planes (biaxial) because the bones are shaped like a condyle in a cup.Examples are the Metacarpal-phalangeal joints (MPJ’s).These are calledbiaxial condyloid joints
19Saddle JointsBoth bones are concave on one side and convex on the other.Allows for movement in two planes (biaxial).Example is at the base of the thumb (between the trapezium and metacarpal I)Saddle joints are biaxial joints; in primate anatomy, allows for the opposable thumb
20Ball and Socket JointsAllows for movement in three planes (multiaxial).Examples are the shoulder and hip joints.
21Bursae and Tendon Sheaths The knee joint has at least 13 bursaeFigure 9.4a, b
22The Shoulder JointDiarthrotic (freely moveable) ball and socket joint:Humeral head in glenoid cavity
23Trapezoid ligament (part of coracoclavicular ligament) ClavicleAcromioclavicular ligamentConoid ligament (part of coracoclavicular ligament)AcromionTendon of supraspinatus muscleSuperior transverse scapular ligamentCoracoacromial ligamentCoracoid processTendon of long head of biceps brachii muscleArticular capsuleTendon of subscapularis muscleHumerusScapula (in part)
24Shoulder Joint (Glenohumeral Joint) Ligaments:Glenohumeral ligaments : 3 fibrous bandsFrom the anterior glenoid labrum to the anatomical neck of humerusReinforce the anterior part of the articular capsule (and are inside the capsule, not visible from outside.)Coracohumeral ligamentFrom base of coracoid process to anterior aspect of greater tubercle of humerusTransverse humeral ligamentRuns from greater to lesser tubercle of humerusCreates a channel , bridging over the intertubercular grooveSite for tendon of long head of biceps brachiiCoracoacromial ligamentFrom inferior aspect of acromion to coracoid processForms a protective “arch” preventing superior displacement of the headSupraspinatus muscle passes under this arch.
38PalmarradiocarpalligamentRadiusUlnaLunateRadialcollateralligamentUlnarcollateralligamentScaphoidIntercarpalligamentsPisiformHamateTrapeziumCarpo-metacarpalligamentsCapitate(c) Ligaments of the wrist, anterior (palmar) view
48Musculocutaneus Nerve Supplies anterior muscles of the arm AxillaryMusculocutaneusMusculocutaneus Nerve Supplies anterior muscles of the arm
49Patient trying to make a fist Median NerveSupplies no muscles of the armSupplies anterior forearm (except flexor carpi ulnaris)Damage can causeCarpal Tunnel SyndromeHand of benedictionApe HandPatient trying to make a fist
52Carpel Tunnel Syndrome The median nerve travels under the transverse carpal ligament.The nerve is pinched in carpal tunnel syndrome.
53MEDIAN NERVEThis is the nerve that gets cut when people try to slit their wrists.The arteries are so small in the wrist; people rarely die from this type of suicide attempt. However, they live with a lot of tissue damage. They are not able to move the thumb towards the little finger, so it is hard to pick up small objects. This is called “ape hand”.
62Arteries of the Upper Extremity Subclavian (becomes axillary artery in armpit)Axillary (becomes brachial artery in arm)Supplies triceps brachiiBrachial (divides into radial and ulnar arteries when it reaches the elbow)Supplies arm muscles except triceps brachiiRadialUlnar
64Patient CaseSusan reports shoulder pain located at the proximal lateral humerus. The pain is worse when sleeping on the right shoulder, and also when she elevates her arm.This location is consistent with pain originating from the shoulder cuff tendons, the long head of biceps brachii, or subacromial bursa.Her pain may be from the rotator cuff, bursitis, or biceps tendonitis.Pain from laying on the shoulder is consistent with pain originating from the subacromial space. The humerus compresses the bursa there when laying on the affected side.
65Patient CaseWhen the arm is elevated and especially when carrying a load in that position, the subacromial bursa is compressed.As the supraspinatus muscle contracts in this position, the blood supply to its tendon is impinged. Repeating these motions during the day may cause a supraspinatus tendon tear, since its nutrient vessels are pinched.
66SupraspinatusThe supraspinatus muscle participates in humeral elevation throughout its range of motion, especially the first 5-10 degrees, so it is under tension most of a person’s waking hours and is vulnerable to tensile overload. The trapezius then takes over most of the rest of the range of motion.Supraspinatus is the most vulnerable of the cuff muscles.Rotator cuff tendinitis produces pain between degrees of humeral elevation in relation to the trunk. This range is called the painful arc. Beyond 120 degrees, the tendons have cleared the coracoacromial arch.If the pain occurs beyond 120 degrees, it is more likely to be from degeneration of the acromial-clavicular joint.
67Rotator Cuff Injury Symptoms Pain and tenderness in the shoulder, especially when reaching overhead, reaching behind the back, lifting, pulling or sleeping on the affected side.DiagnosisX-raysMRIUltrasound
68Causes of Rotator Cuff Injuries Normal wear and tear.Poor posture. When you slouch your neck and shoulders forward, the space where the rotator cuff muscles reside can become smaller. This can allow a muscle or tendon to become pinched under your shoulder bones (including your collarbone), especially during overhead activities, such as throwing.Falling. Using your arm to break a fall or falling on your armLifting or pulling. Lifting an object overhead Likewise, pulling something, such as a high-poundage archery bow, may cause an injury.Repetitive overhead movement. This occurs often in athletes, especially baseball pitchers, swimmers and tennis players. It's also common among people in the building trades, such as painters and carpenters.
69TrapeziusSerratus anterior and trapezius both abduct the arm. Trapezius can abduct the arm through its full range of motion, although it is weaker without serratus anterior.Overuse and damage to trapezius can result in a shoulder shrug motion when trying to elevate the arm, and fatigue and pain in that muscle.This also might be a cause of Susan’s pain.
70Upper Trapezius Strain An upper-trapezius strain can be triggered quite easily by consistently overusing the muscle group, even at a low intensity. Because repetitive motions do not allow the affected tissue to rest between movements, they can cause stress and irritation.The members of today’s work force don’t often get up to sharpen a pencil, fax documents or walk to the post office to deliver a package. The easy and convenient access of working tools promotes inactivity and therefore a rise in repetitive stress injuries associated with desk and computer work. Simple, everyday movements—like habitually holding a telephone between the ear and shoulder—can trigger upper trapezius pain.
71Upper Trapezius Strain It is easy to understand how the upper trapezius could be in a state of active insufficiency in certain situations; for example, when the shoulder is elevated and the neck is extended, side-bent and rotated, as when you are cradling a phone between your ear and shoulder.Shrugging the shoulders and overhead movements also fatigue trapezius.Throughout the day, the upper trapezius might be actively insufficient, while, alternatively, the rhomboids might be passively insufficient (when the shoulders are rounded).Developing better posture and moving out of these positions intermittently throughout the workday will place the muscles back at their optimal length.
72Trapezius Exercises at the Office Sitting with upright posture, perform 15–20 reps an hour of the following upper trapezius exercises.1. Scapular Pinches. Roll the shoulders back, and pinch the shoulder blades together.2. Shoulder Shrugs. Raise the shoulders up toward the ears, then lower them back down.3. Neck Side-Bending. Tilt one ear toward the shoulder, and hold briefly.4. Neck Rotation. Look over one shoulder, and pause briefly.5. Neck Stretch.In a standing or seated position, place the right hand on top of the head and let the left arm rest at the side.Gently pull the head toward the right shoulder with the right hand.Rotate the head down and look at the right hip. (The stretch should be felt on the left side of the neck/shoulder area.)Repeat on the opposite side.
73Elbow PainWhen the elbow joint capsule is inflamed, the patient holds the elbow flexed at about 80 degrees.That is the position at which the least amount of tension is present in the joint capsule and surrounding structures.
74Elbow PainMost elbow pain results from overuse injuries; many sports, hobbies and jobs require repetitive hand, wrist or arm movements.Elbow pain may occasionally be due to arthritis, but in general, your elbow joint is much less prone to wear-and-tear damage than are many other joints.
75Common Causes of Elbow Pain Fractures, ligament sprains and muscle and tendon tearsDislocation; usually caused by a fall. Children may dislocate the head of the radius from being pulled by the arm (nursemaid’s elbow).Tennis elbow (lateral epicondylitis) from forceful extension of wrist; wrist extension is painful. Diagnose by resisting extension of third finger, creating pain in lateral epicondyle.Golfer's elbow (medial epicondylitis) from repeatedly flexing wrists or clenching fingersCubital tunnel syndrome, ulnar nerve on the inside of the elbow is irritated or injuredLittle league elbow syndrome (pitcher's elbow) — an injury mainly affecting children and rapidly growing adolescents involved in throwing sports such as baseballOlecranon bursitis — inflammation of a small sac of fluid (olecranon bursa) on the tip of your elbowOsteochondritis dissecans - Caused by reduced blood flow to the end of a bone, occurs most often in young men, particularly after an injury to a joint.Radial tunnel syndrome, which occurs when the radial nerve becomes compressed just beyond the elbow (sometimes called resistant tennis elbow)Nursemaid’s Elbow
76Treatment of Elbow and Wrist Pain SplintingForearm support bandsTapingUltrasoundManipulationExerciseOral anti-inflammatory medicinesCortisone injections
78Patient CaseGeorge has been a computer programmer for 20 years. He has numbness in his right hand on the thumb, index finger, and middle finger.Tapping on the carpal tunnel causes parathesias (tingling) in the median nerve distribution (positive Tinel’s sign).Placing his wrist in sustained flexion for one minute also causes the parathesias (positive Phalen’s test).
79Patient CaseTreatment began with splinting the wrist in neutral position and patient education for proper ergonomics (use a wrist pad while typing).
80Anti-Deformity Positioning After trauma to the hand, a custom-fabricated splint is provided for support and protection during healing.Because the collateral ligaments of the MP joints are slack with extension, immobilization in MP extension would place the collateral ligaments at risk for adaptive shortening, limiting joint flexion, which impairs grasp.A splint should place the MP joints in flexion. The IP joints should be held in extension to reduce the risk of flexion contractures. The thumb should be placed in slight abduction to prevent contracture.
81Ulnar Nerve Damage: Cubital Tunnel Syndrome When the medial epicondyle is struck while the elbow is flexed, the ulnar nerve can be damaged.The extensor digitorum muscle alone can extend the IP joints of the two small fingers if full MPJ extension is prevented. The splint is shaped so the flexor digitorum longus can still flex.
82Wartenberg’s SignUlnar nerve damage can cause claw hand because the flexors become weak, giving the extensors a mechanical advantage, pulling the two little fingers into a claw.The little finger may also assume an MPJ abduction position, called Wartenberg’s sign.
83Trigger FingerTrigger finger is one example of the disability that can be created when repetitive trauma to a flexor tendon results in the formation of nodules on the tendon. Finger flexion may be prevented completely, or the finger may be unable to re-extend.
85Carpal FracturesUpper extremity fractures are among the most common of the extremity injuries with carpal fractures accounting for 18% of hand fractures and 6 percent of all fractures.Of these, fractures to bones of the proximal row are most frequent.Fractures of the pisiform bone occur less often than fractures of the scaphoid, lunate, or triquetrum (triangular).Pisiform fractures account for 1-3% of all carpal bone osseous injuries
86Pisiform FractureMost commonly the pisiform is injured in a fall on the outstretched hand with the wrist in extension or if the heel of the hand is used like a hammer.When the wrist is in this position, the flexor carpi ulnaris tendon compresses the pisiform to the triquetrum.These mechanisms can create an avulsion fracture of the distal aspect of the pisiform, a linear fracture, or a chondral injury to its dorsal surface. The bone may need to be removed surgically.Being an anchor for several ligamentous attachments, and the origin of the abductor digiti minimi, there is a 50% chance of an associated injury to the distal radius or to another carpal bone when a fracture of the pisiform is identified.
87Scaphoid FractureScaphoid fractures are among the most common injuries.They frequently occur following a fall onto an outstretched hand.X-rays taken soon after the injury may not reveal a fracture, but the clinician should assume one is present until definitive proof otherwise is obtained.Of all carpal fractures, scaphoid fractures are by far the most common, accounting for 10% of all hand fractures and 60-70% of all carpal fractures.
88Anatomical SnuffboxThe anatomical snuffbox is a triangular deepening on the radial, dorsal aspect of the hand—at the level of the carpal bones, specifically, the scaphoid and trapezium bones forming the floor.The name originates from the use of this surface for placing and then sniffing powdered tobacco, or “snuff.”
89Anatomical SnuffboxThe radius and scaphoid articulate deep to the snuffbox to form the basis of the wrist joint. In the event of a fall onto an outstretched hand, this is the area through which the brunt of the force will focus.This results in these two bones being the most often fractured of the wrist. In a case where there is localized tenderness within the snuffbox, the fracture is likely to be of the scaphoid.The scaphoid is a small, oddly shaped bone whose purpose is to facilitate mobility rather than confer stability to the wrist joint.In the event of inordinate application of force over the wrist, this small scaphoid is clearly likely to be the weak link.Interestingly, scaphoid fracture is one of the most frequent causes of medico-legal issues.
90Anatomical SnuffboxAn interesting anatomical anomaly in the vascular supply to the scaphoid is the area to which the blood supply is first delivered.Blood enters the scaphoid distally. Consequently, in the event of a fracture the proximal segment of the scaphoid will be devoid of a vascular supply, and will—if action is not taken—avascularly necrose within a sufferer's snuffbox.Due to the small size of the scaphoid and its shape, it is difficult to determine, early on, whether or not the scaphoid is indeed fractured with an x-ray.