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Focus on the Pectoral Girdle

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Presentation on theme: "Focus on the Pectoral Girdle"— Presentation transcript:

1 Focus on the Pectoral Girdle
The Skeletal System Focus on the Pectoral Girdle

2 General anatomical terms to know
Process Ramus Trochanter Tuberosity Tubercle Crest Line Spine Head Neck Condyle Trochlea Facet Fossa Sulcus Foramen Canal of meatus Fissure Sinus

3 Appendicular Skeleton
126 bones Includes bones of the limbs (appendages) Supporting bones of the pectoral and pelvic girdles (connect limbs to axial skeleton)

4 Pectoral Girdle forms the shoulder Consists of two bones
clavicle (collarbone)- long bone Latin word “clavicula” = little key scapula (shoulder blade) Allows free movement of upper limb Sternoclavicular joint – where the clavicle meets the sternum Acromioclavicular joint – where the clavicle meets the scapula Loose attachment allows scapula to move freely Shoulder joint is poorly reinforced by ligaments Easily dislocated

5 Right Pectoral Girdle - Anterior

6 Right Pectoral Girdle -Posterior

7 The Clavicle Aka Collarbone Slender, doubly curved bone
Acts as a brace to hold the arm away from the thoracic cage Helps prevent shoulder dislocation Structures to know: Acromioclavicular joint and sternoclavicular joint

8 The Clavicle

9 The Scapula Aka Shoulder blade (little shovel) Anatomy: Flattened body
Spine (posterior) Supraspinous fossa – Superior to (above) the spine Origin of the supraspinatus muscle (rotator cuff) (posterior) Infraspinous fossa – Inferior to (below) the spine Additional Fossae: Subscapular fossa- anterior Origin of the subscapularis muscle (rotator cuff) (anterior)

10 The Scapula Acromion process = enlarged end of the spine of the scapula Articulates with the clavicle to form the acromioclavicular joint Comes from the Greek word “Akron”(peak) and “Omos”(shoulder) Coracoid process = “beak”-like process Points over the top of the shoulder and anchors arm muscles Suprascapular notch = nerve passageway Forms a foramen (ossification of transverse ligament) that provides passage way for the suprascapular nerve. Glenoid fossa(cavity) = shallow socket that receives the head of the arm Comes from the greek work “glene” (socket)

11 The Scapula Borders: Lateral (axillary) border
Medial (vertebral) border Superior border

12 The Scapula- posterior aspect
Coracoid process Suprascapular notch acromion spine Medial border Lateral border

13 The Scapula- anterior aspect
acromion Suprascapular notch Coracoid process Glenoid Cavity Lateral border Medial border

14 Scapula

15 The Upper LImb

16 Bones of the Upper limbs
30 separate bones in each upper limb Arm, foreharm, hand

17 The arm The humerus – single typical long bone of the upper arm
Articulates proximally with scapula and clavicle and distally with radius and ulna Proximal features: Head – fits into glenoid cavity of scapula Greater and lesser tubercles – two bony projections lateral to the head Separated by the intertubercular sulcus Attachment of tendons Anatomical neck – slight constriction just inferior to the head Surgical neck – most frequently fractured part of the humerus

18 Features of the diaphysis:
Features of the diaphysis (shaft): Deltoid tuberosity: attachment for the deltoid(shoulder) muscle Radial groove- marks the course of the radial nerve

19 The arm Distal features: Lateral and medial epicondyles:
External and internal condyles: Olecranon fossa: groove that receives the olecranon process of the ulna upon extension of the arm. Coronoid fossa: groove that receives the coronoid process of the ulna upon flexion of the arm. Trochlea (medial) articulates with trochlear notch of the ulna. Capitulum (lateral) articulates with head of the radius

20 The right arm (humerus)
Greater tubercle head Lesser tubercle Anatomical Neck Surgical Neck Intertubercular Sulcus

21 The right arm (humerus)
Greater tubercle Greater tubercle head Lesser tubercle Anatomical Neck Surgical Neck Intertubercular Sulcus Radial Groove Deltoid tuberosity Deltoid tuberosity Coronoid fossa Olecranon fossa Radial fossa Medial Epicondyle Lateral Epicondyle capitulum trochlea

22 The forearm Consists of two bones
Radius = lateral bone when in anatomical position Ulna = medial bone when in anatomical position Radioulnar joints = sight of articulation of radius and ulna Two bones are connected along their entire length by interosseous membrane Structures to know: radial tuberosity, styloid process, coronoid process, olecranon process, trochlear notch

23 Trochlear Notch Olecranon Process head Coronoid Process neck Radial tuberosity Proximal Radioulnar joint Radius Ulna Interosseous membrane Styloid Process (ulna) Styloid Process (radius) Distal Radioulnar joint


25 The Hand Wrist (carpals) = 8 short bones
Palm (metacarpals) = 5 long bones Fingers (phalanges)= long bones Thumb has 2 phalanges Each finger has 3 phalanges Proximal phalange Medial phalange Distal phalange

26 Phalanges Metacarpals trapezium hamate pisiform Carpals trapezoid triquetrum scaphoid lunate capitate Ulna Radius


28 Can you identify the following??
1. 2. 5. 3. 6. 4. 7. 8.

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