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SOME DATA NECESSARY FOR THE WATERBORNE TRANSPORT ENGINEERING STUDIES Igor Bačkalov Department of Naval Architecture University of Belgrade – Faculty of.

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Presentation on theme: "SOME DATA NECESSARY FOR THE WATERBORNE TRANSPORT ENGINEERING STUDIES Igor Bačkalov Department of Naval Architecture University of Belgrade – Faculty of."— Presentation transcript:

1 SOME DATA NECESSARY FOR THE WATERBORNE TRANSPORT ENGINEERING STUDIES Igor Bačkalov Department of Naval Architecture University of Belgrade – Faculty of Mechanical Engineering ETISplus ∙ Waterborne Transport Data Workshop ∙ Brussels ∙ May 12 th, 2011.

2 Department of Naval Architecture – University of Belgrade (UB-FME) FIELD OF RESEARCH technology development leading to increased safety, energy-efficiency and environmental-friendliness of seagoing ships and inland vessels. EXPERTISE hydrodynamics, high-speed craft ship dynamics, seakeeping ship strength, FEM hull and shafting vibrations feasibility studies navigation in shallow and restricted waterways design of seagoing and inland vessels in general MILESTONES introduction of pushboat technology on the Danube; design of dredgers, floating cranes, pushboats and self-propelled vessels; development of the Danube container vessel and IWT Ro-Ro technology; development of risk-based ship stability regulations. SOME DATA NECESSARY FOR THE WATERBORNE TRANSPORT ENGINEERING STUDIES ∙ ETISPLUS ∙ BRUSSELS, 12 th MAY 2011

3 Some Data Necessary for the Waterborne Transport Engineering Studies SOME DATA NECESSARY FOR THE WATERBORNE TRANSPORT ENGINEERING STUDIES ∙ ETISPLUS ∙ BRUSSELS, 12 th MAY 2011 INTRODUCTION WATERWAY CHARACTERISTICS RULES AND REGULATIONS DUES AND CHARGES ACCIDENTS CONCLUDING REMARKS

4 INTRODUCTION Waterborne transport engineering studies: traffic engineering / logistics; civil engineering / hydraulics; naval architecture / ship design; Why not “SOME DATA NECESSARY FOR THE SHIP DESIGN STUDIES”? SOME DATA NECESSARY FOR THE WATERBORNE TRANSPORT ENGINEERING STUDIES ∙ ETISPLUS ∙ BRUSSELS, 12 th MAY 2011

5 INTRODUCTION “Ships are to be designed and constructed for a specified design life to be safe and environmentally friendly, when properly operated and maintained under the specified operating and environmental conditions, in intact and specified damage conditions, throughout their life.” (GBS Development Tier I: Goals) Ship design and construction: adequate strength and stability; construction materials: environmentally acceptable dismantling /recycling; ship structure arrangement: safe access, escape, inspection, maintenance; … SOME DATA NECESSARY FOR THE WATERBORNE TRANSPORT ENGINEERING STUDIES ∙ ETISPLUS ∙ BRUSSELS, 12 th MAY 2011

6 INTRODUCTION Ship designer tasks: –safety and environmental-friendliness; –economy and efficiency. The knowledge and understanding of: –waterway characteristics; –rules and regulations guiding the design process; –port dues and charges and canal fees; –typical hazards. Application in the preliminary design stage SOME DATA NECESSARY FOR THE WATERBORNE TRANSPORT ENGINEERING STUDIES ∙ ETISPLUS ∙ BRUSSELS, 12 th MAY 2011

7 WATERWAY CHARACTERISTICS SOME DATA NECESSARY FOR THE WATERBORNE TRANSPORT ENGINEERING STUDIES ∙ ETISPLUS ∙ BRUSSELS, 12 th MAY 2011 Inland waterway transport Waterway depth / water levels; Locks; Bridges; Canals, etc. Maritime transport Wave climate; Wind climate; Icing conditions; Waterway depth / shallow-water areas, etc. Combined (sea-river) navigation Both groups of data.

8 WATERWAY CHARACTERISTICS SOME DATA NECESSARY FOR THE WATERBORNE TRANSPORT ENGINEERING STUDIES ∙ ETISPLUS ∙ BRUSSELS, 12 th MAY 2011 Inland waterway transport The Danube waterway bottlenecks; Shallow-water sections on the Upper and the Lower Danube: 2m (1.7m) – 2.4m; Bad Abbach and Regensburg locks: 1x12m; On the Upper Danube few bridges bellow 6.8m (Deggendorf 4.7m).

9 WATERWAY CHARACTERISTICS SOME DATA NECESSARY FOR THE WATERBORNE TRANSPORT ENGINEERING STUDIES ∙ ETISPLUS ∙ BRUSSELS, 12 th MAY 2011 Maritime transport Seakeeping calculations based on the wave climate information; Ship operability; Affects ship particulars in the preliminary design phase; H s [m] Tp [s] P [%] P [%] Table based on: Rusu, L., Bernardino, M., “Estimation of the operability index of a containership operating in Black Sea”, The Annals of University Dunarea de Jos of Galati, 2009, Fascicle VIII, Tribology, XV, pp

10 RULES AND REGULATIONS SOME DATA NECESSARY FOR THE WATERBORNE TRANSPORT ENGINEERING STUDIES ∙ ETISPLUS ∙ BRUSSELS, 12 th MAY 2011 Manning standards; Number, composition, age of crew; Existence of different standards, e.g. on inland waterways: – Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation (MINTRANS): “Decree On Approval of the minimum crew of self-propelled cargo ships”; – Central Commission for the Navigation on the Rhine (CCNR): “Rhine Vessels Inspection Regulations”; – UNECE Resolution No. 61, “Recommendations on Harmonized Europe-Wide Technical Requirements for Inland Navigation Vessels”;

11 RULES AND REGULATIONS SOME DATA NECESSARY FOR THE WATERBORNE TRANSPORT ENGINEERING STUDIES ∙ ETISPLUS ∙ BRUSSELS, 12 th MAY 2011 MINTRANS Self-propelled (dry) cargo vessels in inland navigation, with the symbol "A" in the vessel class, operated by crew with combined duties Vessel capacityProfessional compositionThe minimum crew for operation mode up to 14 hoursup to 18 hoursround-the-clock one shifttwo shifts three 8h shiftstwo 12h shifts Up to 600tBoatmaster - engineer1232 Helmsman - engine-minder1-11 From 601 to 1000tBoatmaster - engineer1232 Helmsman - engine-minder2122 From 1001 to 2400tBoatmaster - engineer1232 Helmsman - engine-minder1232 Electro-engineer - electrician1111 From 2401 to 5500tBoatmaster - engineer1232 Helmsman - engine-minder2232 Electro-engineer - electrician1111

12 RULES AND REGULATIONS SOME DATA NECESSARY FOR THE WATERBORNE TRANSPORT ENGINEERING STUDIES ∙ ETISPLUS ∙ BRUSSELS, 12 th MAY 2011 MINTRANS Self-propelled (dry) cargo vessels in inland navigation, without the symbol "A" in the vessel class, operated by crew with combined duties Vessel capacityProfessional compositionThe minimum crew for operation mode up to 14 hoursup to 18 hoursround-the-clock one shifttwo shifts three 8h shiftstwo 12h shifts Up to 600tBoatmaster - engineer1232 Helmsman - engine-minder2121 From 601 to 1000tBoatmaster - engineer1232 Helmsman - engine-minder2222 From 1001 to 2400tBoatmaster - engineer1232 Helmsman - engine-minder2232 Electro-engineer - electrician1111 From 2401 to 5500tBoatmaster - engineer--32 Helmsman - engine-minder--43 Electro-engineer - electrician--11

13 RULES AND REGULATIONS SOME DATA NECESSARY FOR THE WATERBORNE TRANSPORT ENGINEERING STUDIES ∙ ETISPLUS ∙ BRUSSELS, 12 th MAY 2011 RVBR Minimum crew for self-propelled cargo vessels and pushers S1, S2 – equipment standards A1, A2, B – operating modes Length of the vessel [m]Professional compositionThe minimum crew for operation mode A1 A2B S1S2S1S2S1S2 L ≤ 70Boatmaster1222 Helmsman---- Able crewmen---- Ordinary crewmen1-1- Apprentice < L ≤ 86Boatmaster1 or Helmsman----- Able crewmen1 or Ordinary crewmen- or Apprentice- or L > 86Boatmaster1 or or 22 Helmsman1 or Able crewmen- or Ordinary crewmen1 or or 11 Apprentice- or or -1

14 RULES AND REGULATIONS SOME DATA NECESSARY FOR THE WATERBORNE TRANSPORT ENGINEERING STUDIES ∙ ETISPLUS ∙ BRUSSELS, 12 th MAY 2011 UNECE Resolution 61 Minimum crew for self-propelled cargo vessels and pushers Length of the vessel [m]Professional compositionThe minimum crew for operation mode A1 A2B L ≤ 70Boatmaster122 Helmsman--- Able crewmen--- Ordinary crewmen < L ≤ 86Boatmaster122 Helmsman--- Able crewmen1-- Ordinary crewmen-12 L > 86Boatmaster122 Helmsman1-1 Able crewmen--- Ordinary crewmen122

15 Builders Old Measurement Rule, – As a consequence, long, narrow, full form ships: small tonnage – large payload. 2 B2B2 B DUES AND CHARGES ”Tunnage” = 94 L · L · B · T ·3/5 · C B 35 derived from ft 35ft 3 of seawater weighs 1t Tonnage = (L – B · 3/5 ) · B · B/2 94 The Thames, the 2 nd half of the 17 th century SOME DATA NECESSARY FOR THE WATERBORNE TRANSPORT ENGINEERING STUDIES ∙ ETISPLUS ∙ BRUSSELS, 12 th MAY 2011

16 The consequences of gross tonnage measurement 1960s – 1980s 1990s – present cca DWT SOME DATA NECESSARY FOR THE WATERBORNE TRANSPORT ENGINEERING STUDIES ∙ ETISPLUS ∙ BRUSSELS, 12 th MAY 2011 DUES AND CHARGES

17 SOME DATA NECESSARY FOR THE WATERBORNE TRANSPORT ENGINEERING STUDIES ∙ ETISPLUS ∙ BRUSSELS, 12 th MAY 2011 DUES AND CHARGES Port feesBasis for calculation 1.Turkey Pilotage and towageGT MooringGT Light duesNT Sanitary duesNT 2.Bulgaria PilotageGT TugsGT Light duesGT MooringGT 3.Romania PilotageGT TugsLOA MooringLOA 4.Ukraine Pilotagem 3 -mile / m 3 Light duesm3m3 Mooringm3m3 Sanitary duesm3m3 5.Russia PilotageGT Light duesGT TonnageGT Environmental duesGT

18 ACCIDENTS SOME DATA NECESSARY FOR THE WATERBORNE TRANSPORT ENGINEERING STUDIES ∙ ETISPLUS ∙ BRUSSELS, 12 th MAY 2011 Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) –Methodology for enhancement of maritime safety; –Evaluation of new regulations / comparison between existing and improved regulations; FSA Steps: –Identification of hazards; –Risk analysis; –Risk control options; –Cost-benefit assessment; –Recommendations for decision-making. Accidents database for inland navigation? River-sea navigation? Example: hazards identified in 29 accidents of restricted (river-sea) navigation ships.

19 ACCIDENTS SOME DATA NECESSARY FOR THE WATERBORNE TRANSPORT ENGINEERING STUDIES ∙ ETISPLUS ∙ BRUSSELS, 12 th MAY 2011 Identified hazards% 1.Hull, machinery and systems related 1.1Discrepancies between inland and sea operation requirements76 1.2Shell, plates, bulkheads, tank walls damages52 1.3Technology violations during repair and modernization52 1.4Omission of defects during hull inspection45 1.5Design errors48 1.6Main engine and propeller shaft failures10 1.7Large-scale hull structure repairs14 1.8Violation of ICLL requirements (hatch covers, coamings, watertight doors, etc.)34 1.9Propeller and rudder failures 2.Cargo related 2.1Carrying of scrap45 2.2Dangerous cargoes 2.3Cargo operations with grabs, heavy forklifts and bulldozers45 2.4Loading/unloading errors in ports 3.Owner, operator and crew related 3.1Inappropriate ballasting 3.2Disregard of restrictions in navigation area31 3.3Navigation errors10 3.4Contact with ice, locks and quays 3.5Change of ballast at sea9 3.6Forecast errors17 3.7Overloading14 Table based on: Egorov, G. V., “Application of formal safety assessment to hull modernization of restricted navigation area ship”, The 14 th Asian Technical Exchange and Advisory Meeting on Marine Structures, The Far Eastern Technical University, Russia, 2000.

20 CONCLUDING REMARKS SOME DATA NECESSARY FOR THE WATERBORNE TRANSPORT ENGINEERING STUDIES ∙ ETISPLUS ∙ BRUSSELS, 12 th MAY 2011 Waterway characteristics, rules and regulations, dues and charges, accidents; Significantly affect the choice of ship dimensions in the preliminary design stage; May affect the choice of ship type! In general, more difficult to obtain: –data relevant for inland navigation (and short-sea shipping); –data relevant for Eastern European market;


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