Presentation on theme: "The base of Turkish Republic is culture! Mustafa Kemal ATATÜRK/Founder of Turkish Republic."— Presentation transcript:
The base of Turkish Republic is culture! Mustafa Kemal ATATÜRK/Founder of Turkish Republic
Prof. Dr. N. Orhan BAYKAN Pamukkale University, Engineering Faculty, Dept. of CE, Kınıklı-Denizli, TÜRKİYE WATER STRUCTURES FROM HELLENISTIC, ROMAN AND BYZANTINE PERIODS IN TÜRKİYE
SOME ANCIENT CITIES IN TÜRKİYE (Öziş 2007)
This presentation scopes Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine Periods only 330 BC, Hellenistic period; 27 BC, Roman Empire Period; Dividing of Roma in 395, Eastern Roma and after a certain period, in 575, Early Byzantine; in 867, Middle Byzantine and after 1025 Late Byzantine Periods up the conquest of Istanbul (Constantinople) by Fatih Sultan Mehmet (Conquerer Sultan Mehmet) in ALSO BETWEEN 330 BC-1453 (1,8 MILLENIA)
HELLENISTIC ERA (Western Türkiye)
Ancient Civilisations If we look at what they hydraulically realized, we call them also: THEY HAVE BEEN AT THE SAME TIME HYDRAULIC CIVILISATIONS TOO.
Various kinds of water structures of ancient world among them: Capturing; conveying; lifting; distributing; discharing; gaining place and hygienically making secure the city by covering the creeks; prevent the harbors by diversion the creeks; improving and rehabilitating of shores may be counted.
Among the benefits by studying of ancient water structures may be dominantly counted as follows: Support to archeologists Sustainable protection of remains Evaluating clues for better design, proper selection of materials, earthquake ressisted shape of building and…
And… INNOVATIVE STUDIES CLIMATE CHANGE To obtain information/clues about paleolitic climate change along the near history (to collect sediment samples from ancient water structures), thus to understand “what happened in the past?, climatologically and/or socially” (and also what may happen in future?)
CALIBRATION OF EXISTING AND/OR DEVELOPING NEW METHODS To calibrate modern hydrological methods by applying them to ancient structures (e.g., to galleries or tunnels) and/or to develope new methods by examining the existing one’s on the ancient remains.
For instance, Ancient Tunnel “Bezirgan” near to Patara ancient city/Antalya 120 ha ANCIENT ANCIENT TUNNEL TUNNEL
STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF ANCIENT WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING STUDIES IN TÜRKİYE DURING THE PASSED 30 YEARS
The most ancient remains in Türkiye which we for the time being follow up are mostly from AD and from Roman Empire.
22 ancient regions in Türkiye 22 ancient regions in Türkiye (Umar 1999).
Presently known and/or in literature cited ancient cities in Türkiye (420) ( Presently known and/or in literature cited ancient cities in Türkiye (420) (Umar 1999)
Deeply and/or most roughly investigated cities in these 22 Ancient Regions in Türkiye are 112. Deeply and/or most roughly investigated cities in these 22 Ancient Regions in Türkiye are
INTERIM CONCLUSION If the maps above considered, it is seen that Atmost 1/3 (=112/420=%27) of the water structures of the ancients cities that for the time being their traces are visible had to be abled to study during the last 30 years.
VERIOUS EXAMPLES OF THE HELLENISTIC, ROMAN EMPIRE AND BYZANTINE PERIODS UP TO THE CONQUEST OF ISTANBUL (CONSTANTINOPLE) 330 BC AD
Bergama, İzmir/TR; lead pipe with stone connection, Hellenistic Period HELLENISTIC PERIOD
HELLENISTIC PERIOD, SMYRNA (İzmir), STONE PIPES OF “MELEZ” SIPHONAGE; 3,3 km long under 155 m water head.
Vize, İstanbul/TR; The longest Roman waterway (242 km)
Aydın/TR; Taşkemer (stone-arch) (Tralles)
Gelemiş, Kalkan, Antalya/TR; reverse siphon (Patara), Hellenistic-Roman Shild for wrongly described “Lykian Way” (Waterway)
Aksu, Antalya/TR; aqueduct (Aspendos)
İstanbul/TR; Bozdoğan (Valens) aqueduct
Oymapınar, Manavgat, AlanyaTR; stone caved canal (Side), Roman
Ferhat’s canal in Amasya/TR (ancient name Amasia) Ferhat’s Canal
Araphisar, Çine, Aydın/TR; spring capture structure (Alabanda)
Aksu, Antalya/TR, mountain gallery for water (Perge), Roman
Pamukkale Denizli/TR; water balance structure (Laodiceia), 3 th BC
Pamukkale, Denizli/TR; water supply gallery (Hierapolis)
Pamukkale, Denizli/TR; city reservoir (Hierapolis) Frontal view Internal view
Qanat Entering to Qanat Aerial view Inside of Qanat
Çevlik, Samandağ, Antakya/TR; creek diversion (Seleucia Pierra)
Bergama/İzmir/TR; creek covering
Datça/Muğla/TR; quay structure (Knidos)
PATARA LIGHTHOUSE, Gelemiş, Kalkan, Kaş/Antalya/TR (The unique example of ancient world)
İstanbul/TR, cistern (Yerebatan, 336 colums, 70*140 m)
Cistern “Binbirdirek”, (234 columns, 56*64 m)
“Aspar (Çukurbostan)”, open cistern, 152*152 m
CONCLUSION SHAPING THE FUTURE Professional deep investigations and protecting studies; Marking water supply and sewerage system to city plan, if any; Touristical trekking activities; Evaluating the climate change; New horizons to hydrological methods.
WISH & THANKSAYING!!! THANK YOU ALSO VERY MUCH FOR THE ORGANIZING COMMITTEE ME TO INVITE for PRESENTATION SUCH A CULTURAL TOPIC TO 5th WWF! HOPING THAT THE HUMANITY WILL PREVENT, PROTECT, CONSERVE AND FIRST OF ALL CONCERN THESE ANCIENT REMAINS TO HANDOVER TO THE NEXT GENERATION !
THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR ATTENTION AND PATIENCE ! (Life is in the water) N. Orhan BAYKAN, Pamukkale University, Denizli/TÜRKİYE 5th WORLD WATER FORUM, İstanbul/TÜRKİYE, March 16th-22nd, 2009