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Byzantine Empire After the Western Roman Empire fell to German barbarian invasions in the 5th century, the Eastern Roman Empire, with its capital at Constantinople,

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Presentation on theme: "Byzantine Empire After the Western Roman Empire fell to German barbarian invasions in the 5th century, the Eastern Roman Empire, with its capital at Constantinople,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Byzantine Empire After the Western Roman Empire fell to German barbarian invasions in the 5th century, the Eastern Roman Empire, with its capital at Constantinople, repelled the invasions and went on to survive for 1000 more years, preserving and spreading the culture of ancient Greeks and Romans Welcome to the Byzantine Empire


3 The Golden Horn

4 Constantinople: A Strategic City Where Europe & Asia Meet

5 Constantine and the move east §- western Roman Empire crumbled in 5th century due to invading Germanic tribes from the north §- the threat to the Roman Empire was already apparent in the 4th century as Emperor Constantine rebuilt they city of Byzantium (a port city) on the Bosporus straight §- 2 reasons as to why he built here: §1. he could respond to the danger of the Germanic tribes §2. he could be close to his rich eastern provinces

6 §- city named Constantinople in his honor and in 330 it was the capital of the Byzantine Empire, the New Rome §- center of power for the Empire shifted east as a result and the eastern provinces began to develop independently of the declining west §- communication difficulties officially divided the Empire in 395

7 §- even though a split had taken place, rulers in the east continued to think of themselves as Roman emperors §-cultural blend of people from Africa, Europe, Middle East §-mainly Greeks occupied Byzantium

8 Justinian and Theodora

9 Theodora & Her Attendants

10 Justinian and His Attendants

11 Justinian §- in 527 he succeeded the throne from his uncle §- described as a serious, even-tempered ruler who worked from dawn til dusk by Procopius, his court historian §- Justinian made good on his claim to be the head of the whole Roman Empire, east and west §- sent his best general Belisarius to take North Africa from the Vandals, Rome from the Ostrogoths, parts of Spain and nearly all of Italy §- by this time Justinian ruled almost all the territory that Rome had ever ruled

12 Belasarius Expands Empire

13 Power of the Emperors: §- Byzantine emperors ruled with absolute power like old Caesars §- they headed the state and the Church (appointed and dismissed bishops at will) §- politics were more brutal (of 88 Byzantine emperors, 29 died violently and 13 abandoned throne to live in monasteries)

14 Building the New Rome: §- the Byzantine Empire is different that western ones, difficulty of communications gave Byzantine Empire its own character §- citizens thought they shared Roman traditions, but in actuality few spoke Latin (most spoke Greek and belonged to eastern branch of Christian church)

15 §- such a complex society needed some regulation, so Justinian set up a legal panel of ten experts to comb through 400 yrs of Roman law and legal opinions §- goal of the panel was to create a single, uniform code for Justinian's New Rome, as many of the previous laws had become outdated or contradicted themselves §-result was a body of civil laws known as Justinian Code

16 Code consisted of 4 works: §1. The Code --> contained nearly 5,000 Roman laws, which experts still considered useful for the Byzantine Empire §2. The Digest --> quoted and summarized the opinions of Rome's greatest legal thinkers about the laws (50 volumes) §3. The Institutes --> a textbook that told law students how to use the laws §4. The Novellae (New Law) --> presented legislation assed after 534 §-decided legal questions that regulated whole areas of Byzantine life: marriage, slavery, property, inheritance, womens rights, crimes § -even though Justinian died in 565 his code served Empire for 900 years

17 Justinians Code

18 Creating the Capital §his rebuilding of Constantinople was the most ambitious public building program ever seen in the Roman world §church building was his biggest passion as he believed it help show a close connection between church and state §Hagia Sophia Holy Wisdom in Greek built ; decorated in mosaics, lamps and candles; its beauty helped convince Russian nobility that they should adopt Christianity; remained Christian until Ottoman Empire took over Constantinople in 1453 and converted it into a mosque; in 1935 country of Turkey made it into a museum

19 Byzantine Architecture

20 Inside Hagia Sophia

21 Constantinople §in time city became unparalleled with its baths, aqueducts, law courts, schools and hospitals §the main street running through the center was Mese (MEH-see) or Middle Way lined with merchants, here shoppers could buy wine from France or tin from England, city seen as a vibrant mercantile area and Byzantine currency was widely accepted around Europe and Asia Minor

22 §free entertainment was at the Hippodrome horse track which held 60,000 people §fans cheered on their teams, such as Greens and Blues, in 532 a city-wide riot sparked called the Nika Rebellion (nika is what they yelled, meaning conquer) §the quelling of this revolt is often attributed to the quick thinking and eloquent speaking of Theodora

23 Justinians Accomplishments

24 Conflict in the Christian Church


26 The Church Divides §the distance and communication difficulties led the West and East (Byzantine) to split on doctrines and rituals §outcome: Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches §Eastern Orthodox built on the early works of church fathers, such as St Basil and St John Chrysostom (KRIHS- uh-stuhm) who later became the patriarch or leading bishop of the east §even patriarchs bowed to emperors authority which led to controversy §the use of icons (religious images used by eastern Christians to aid their devotions) was banned by Emperor Leo III b/c he believed it led to idol worship

27 §this led to iconoclasts or icon-breakers who broke into churches to destroy images §1054 dispute b/t east and west came to head when pope and patriarch excommunicated each other over religious doctrine §after this schism (split) Christianity was permanently divided between the Roman Catholic Church in the west and the Orthodox Church in the east

28 Differences Between Two Christian Traditions Roman CatholicEastern Orthodox Services are conducted in LatinServices are conducted in Greek or local languages The pope has authority over all other bishops The patriarch and other bishops head the church as a group The pope claims authority over all kings and emperors The emperor claims authority over the patriarch and other bishops of the empire Priests may not marryPriests may be married Divorce is not permittedDivorce is allowed under certain conditions

29 §now both churches competed with one another for converts §eastern missionaries tried to convert the Slavs, they invented an alphabet for the Slavic languages so they could read the Bible in their native tongue §this led to the creation of the Cyrillic alphabet

30 Orthodox Clerics Get Papal Apology May 5, 2001 Pope John Paul II, in a sweeping statement of regret aimed at healing Christianitys East- West divide, begged forgiveness for sins committed by Roman Catholics Pope John Paul II singled out the plunder of Constantinople, now Istanbul, as an example of Catholic sin. In an animated voice, he called it disastrous and tragic that assailants, who had set out to secure free access to Christians to the Holy Land, turned against their own brothers in faith.

31 Byzantine Art


33 Hagia Sophia

34 11th Century Crusaders

35 Fall of Constantinople

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