NodesLinks Where do we find Networks + Revenues Bandwidth City Industry Patents Business unit Planet Societies Individual Country Computer Joint venture agreements Research teams Imports Conversations Gravitational pull
SOCIAL NETWORKS DEFINED A set of dyadic ties, of all the same type, among a set of actors Actors can be persons, organizations, groups A tie (link) is an instance of a social relation Source:Steve Borgatti, Basic Social Network Concepts
RELATIONS AMONG PERSONS CAN BE DEFINED IN MANY WAYS Affiliations – Belongs to same clubs – Is physically near Kinship – Mother of, wife of Other role-based – Boss of, teacher of – Friend of Cognitive/perceptual – Knows – Aware of what they know Affective – Likes, trusts Interactions – Sends an email, requests information – Give advice to, talks to, fights with – Sex, drugs with Source:Steve Borgatti, Basic Social Network Concepts Content Matters! Each relation yields a different structure and has different effects Content Matters! Each relation yields a different structure and has different effects
Collaboration Social Professional/Career Personal advice Information Diversity of Connections
SIMPLE ANSWERS Source: Data drawn from Cross, Borgatti & Parker 2001 Employees asked: “Who to ask for answers to straightforward questions” Recent acquisition Older acquisitions Original company
Recent acquisition Older acquisitions Original company PROBLEM REFORMULATION Employees asked: Who do you see to help you think through issues? Source: Data drawn from Cross, Borgatti & Parker 2001
Degree Centrality (Weak ties) Betweenness Centrality (Risk/Power) Closeness Centrality (Strategy) Diane Heather Garth and Fernando Network Location
Network Structure: Patterns Network Attributes – Density (Flows/Noise) – Centrality – Clustering Network Reach Professional/Career UCI NET
CAYLEY TREE (HIERARCHY) STRENGHTS WEAKENESSES Highly Centered Maximizes efficiency at moving information in to, and instructions out from, a center “Leadable” Zero path redundancy Good for efficiency Bad for acuity (ability to process weak signals)
ORGANIZATIONS VS. NETWORKS SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES? Organization – Social entity – Goal directed – Deliberately structured activity systems – Identifiable boundary – Responsibility Network Social entity Goal directed (varies) Emergent (a good thing?) Flexible Specialization Porous boundaries (a good thing?) Responsibility Two very different ways of getting things done, each with its own advantages and disadvantages Community?
Need to Weave KM practice naturally divided based on skill set...nine months later, group was cohesive and selling work that integrated both skill sets Source: “Making Invisible Work Visible: Using Social Network Analysis to Support Strategic Collaboration”, Cross, Borgatti, Parker, California Management Review, 2002.