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Warm Up Age of Exploration 1.Conquistador: 2.Defeated Aztecs: 3.Defeated Incas: transfer that happened when large-scale contact between European.

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Presentation on theme: "Warm Up Age of Exploration 1.Conquistador: 2.Defeated Aztecs: 3.Defeated Incas: transfer that happened when large-scale contact between European."— Presentation transcript:

1 Warm Up Age of Exploration 1.Conquistador: 2.Defeated Aztecs: 3.Defeated Incas: transfer that happened when large-scale contact between European and American societies: 5.The Triangular Trade is a pattern of trade among what three areas? 6.What is the journey of slaves from Africa to the Americas called? 7.List the consequences of the slave trade:

2 After the fall of the Han Dynasty, military leaders split China into rival kingdoms, which led to a period of warfare called the Period of Disunion – Lasted for more than 350 years and ended when a northern ruler named Wendi reunified China and founded the Sui dynasty

3 Tang Dynasty 618 to 907 A Sui general seized power and founded the Tang dynasty, which was a period of prosperity and cultural achievement – Tang rulers began by instituting reforms, such as giving land to peasants, and restoring the civil service exam – China also expanded, regaining lands in Central Asia, along with gaining influence over Korea – Many early Tang rulers were Buddhists, although Buddhism lost official favor later on – Trade revived and the Silk Road once again prospered

4 – Wu Zhao – first and only female emperor Inventions – Invented gunpowder – used mostly for fireworks Fire-lance: weapon that shot out flame and projectiles up to 40 yards – Perfected the magnetic compass Sailors could more accurately determine direction and navigate – Developed woodblock printing Books could be mass produced Gov’t corruption, high taxes, nomadic invasions, and peasant rebellions all led to the decline of the Tang dynasty – A powerful general killed the emperor, ending the dynasty



7 Song Dynasty 960 to 1279 After the Tang, China once again split apart until it was reunified under the Song Dynasty – Under the Song, Chinese civilization became the most advanced in the world Enlarged the gov’t bureaucracy and reformed the civil service exam – Exams tested students’ knowledge of Confucianism – Those who passed the exam became scholar-officials, the elite educated members of the gov’t The exams were a pathway to gain wealth and status

8 – Scholar-gentry = landed aristocrats who produced most of the candidates for the civil service exam – political and economic elite of China Invasions by northern tribes forced the Song to move the imperial court farther south, but eventually they were conquered by the Mongols, leading to foreign rule in China


10 The Mongols The Mongols were nomadic people who were fierce warriors and skilled horsemen Nomads depended on scarce water sources and pastures Conflict occurs because of scarcity of resources Social Hierarchy – Were divided into separate clans, each ruled by a khan, or chief – Women often negotiated alliances between khans – Women were in charge of the selection of a successor often a relative would be secured

11 Religion – Mongol’s were religiously accepting – Mongol khans were thought to represent the Sky god and were seen as universal rulers – One khan united the Mongol clans He took the title Genghis Khan, which means “universal ruler” Genghis Khan organized the Mongols into a powerful military machine and his armies were highly mobile and could strike quickly – Used brutality and psychological warfare




15 – Many people surrendered without a fight With his armies, Genghis Khan created the largest land empire in history, controlling much of the Eurasian landmass, most of north China – On his death, his empire was divided into four parts and given to his heirs – His grandson in 1265, Kublai Khan, completed the conquest of China

16 Kublai Khan



19 Ming Dynasty 1368 to 1644 A peasant and his rebel army overthrew Mongol ruled and established a new dynasty, taking the title Emperor Hongwu – Hongwu reduced taxes and passed reforms to improve agriculture and trade – He also greatly expanded his powers as emperor, taking over more control of the gov’t Ming emperors were more powerful than previous emperors Ming rulers gained control of Korea, Mongolia, and parts of Asia

20 The Ming capital was established at Beijing – In the center the vast Imperial City was built, also known as the Forbidden City One Ming ruler sponsored overseas voyages – Chinese admiral Zheng He led seven voyages that explored Southeast Asia, India, the Arabian Peninsula, and the east coast of Africa – Zheng He traveled with 300 ships Made contact with the first Europeans since Marco Polo, the Portuguese – Restricted foreign trade to a few ports – Ming disliked the influence of Europeans, especially the missionaries – wanted to preserve China’s traditions

21 Marco Polo

22 Marco Polo’s Route

23 Marco Polo probably the most famous Westerner traveled on the Silk Road. He excelled all the other travelers in his determination, his writing, and his influence. His journey through Asia lasted 24 years. He reached further than any of his predecessors, beyond Mongolia to China. He became a confidant of Kublai Khan (1214- 1294). He traveled the whole of China and returned to tell the tale, which became the greatest travelogue.

24 Marco Polo Marco, a gifted linguist and master of four languages, became a favorite with the khan and was appointed to high posts in his administration. He served at the Khan's court and was sent on a number of special missions in China, Burma and India. Many places which Marco saw were not seen again by Europeans until last century. Marco went on great length to describe Kublia's capital, ceremonies, hunting and public assistance, and they were all to be found on a much smaller scale in Europe.

25 Trade Routes of the Mongols – Under the Mongols technology, scientific knowledge, and goods were traded throughout Europe, Middle East, China, and Japan Plagues of the Mongols – Bubonic plague spread through the trade routes into China and throughout Europe



28 – The Ming emperors decided to isolate China from the outside world The main artistic achievement was the porcelain Ming vases Decline due to weak rulers, corruption, and high taxes, which all leads to a peasant revolt – The Manchus, a group of people who live in Manchuria, invade and conquer the peasant revolt – The last Ming emperor commits suicide and the Manchus establish a dynasty



31 Qing Dynasty 1644 to 1911 The Manchus established the Qing dynasty, which would be the last dynasty of China The Manchus adopted the Chinese political system and shared power with them – Showed respect for Chinese customs and maintained Confucian traditions – Remained separate from the Chinese and placed restrictions on them In order to better identify rebels, the Qing gov’t ordered all men to adopt Manchu dress and hairstyles – Men had to adopt the queue = hair style in which the front is shaved with a braid or ponytail in the back

32 Missionaries were allowed to enter China – Qing emperors entertained Jesuit priests to learn about European intellectual advances Foreign relations – Conquered Taiwan and Tibet – The Dutch began a thriving trade in Chinese goods Had to accept China’s terms The Qing dynasty would eventually fall to rebellion in 1911, mostly due to increasing Western influence and the efforts of European imperialism in the 1800s



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