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Thesis of Religion Salman Ahmed Shaikh Islamic Economics Project

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1 Thesis of Religion Salman Ahmed Shaikh Islamic Economics Project

2 Thesis of Religion By way of experience, we can use empirical knowledge obtained from science to learn how the galaxies, planets, stars, rotation of the moon, rotation of the sun and rotation of the earth around sun works. How do millions of living beings sustain themselves in a universe in which even a tiny unusual interference can make life impossible on this earth? Why such a tiny interference does not happen and life continues to exist. All of this could not have been possible without accepting that this universe that is so perfect in its design was created and is being managed by Allah alone. Had there been more than one Allah, then there would not have been such ‘uniformity’ in the way we see universe and the way our planet earth works. Islamic Economics Project

3 Thesis of Religion No meaning to life, world, man, his role and purpose can be explained without believing in Allah. Islam explains this by outlining our role that we have been created by Allah and sent in this world to be judged for our actions and will be rewarded in life hereafter if we follow the teachings of Allah i.e. to be just, kind, truthful, faithful, obedient and morally upright. Islamic Economics Project

4 Thesis of Religion How can one explain a well ordered grand system like universe, having millions of stars, reachable not within centuries even at the speed of light, all so perfectly interwoven to make life exist and that too for some time. If we evolved by ourselves, why we can not evolve into immortality? Not only us, none of the species can escape from natural constraints and become immortal. Islamic Economics Project

5 Thesis of Religion Everything in this world has been created in pairs. If there is thirst, there is water. If there is moon, it needs a sun to have its light reach us. If there is man, then there is a woman. Each one alone cannot live in isolation. They are all interdependent. Similarly, this world is incomplete without a belief in life hereafter. Islamic Economics Project

6 Thesis of Religion Religion provides the answer that this universe was created by a supreme being Who created it for a purpose. Science also confirms that because it has not at all provided answers to "Why it is”. In fact, science has shown that life cannot mathematically and statistically exist by chance. Islamic Economics Project

7 Thesis of Religion Shops, factories, computer programs, machines etc, are systems and they run and are operated by someone. Universe is also a system and is the most complex and a grand system. How can it just be ‘the only system' that does not require a creator. All the systems mentioned above have some purpose. How can only this most grand system have no purpose? Islamic Economics Project

8 Thesis of Religion Why there exists so much contrast in species? Why not some species just by way of chance found nothing that they could eat? Found to have body structure that is suitable in land, but they existed in sea or vice versa. The limited knowledge we have about each and every living thing and how they live and exist is just fascinating. Islamic Economics Project

9 Thesis of Religion How could all species exist in circumstances which suit them with respect to geography, climate, body structure etc? Why then they still die and not evolve into immortality. We could not do it. None of the millions of species could do it. The extinction of species and our death signifies that someone who created us (humans) and took our lives will indeed be able to bring us to life again and that life would justify the purpose of existence and give meaning to this worldly existence. Islamic Economics Project

10 Thesis of Religion Why none of the species became selfish enough to evolve differently so as to become a little bit more superior to others etc. They would want to if they were all different kinds of animals because we as animals (if we take the evolutionists’ stance) know that we are selfish and want freedom from natural constraints. Islamic Economics Project

11 Thesis of Religion If humans were little smarter animals, then they would have at least made some progress to get out of the natural constraints and succeed in a millions of years of history of evolution that evolutionists support. Islamic Economics Project

12 Thesis of Religion If I am standing close to another person and if I am hit with a stick, why would only I feel the stick and not the other person? If we cannot sense each other, cannot get through our independent existence (considering we are the same types of animals), how can distinct species, one existing and one not existing, make way for each other in such a magnificent and perfect way in every detail that life becomes possible without an ultimate creator? Islamic Economics Project

13 Thesis of Religion Can we avoid the question ‘why’ in any other matter of life? If we think that evolution defines a why or even if does not define it, it defines the material dispensation in this world and the human struggle and evolution in this world intellectually and physically, then we ought to believe that all the bodies of knowledge are also one way or the other biological processes. Islamic Economics Project

14 Thesis of Religion How do we differentiate between right and wrong? It has not gone through any evolution. Speaking truth is considered a right thing throughout history. Islamic Economics Project

15 Thesis of Religion If we are not creatures, just a manifestation of nature, then, there needs to be no reason to believe anything right or anything wrong, if we will just die without any accountability in life or hereafter for our actions, then, if we can avoid the court of law, we can kill, steal, hurt etc as long as no one can hold us accountable. But, we do not think and act like that. It is because we have conscience, ability to differentiate between right and wrong. Then, we have feelings and values, and in most cases, absolute feelings and values. Islamic Economics Project

16 Thesis of Religion But, believing that every small thing, though insignificant, needs to be created by someone, but not applying this belief to the creation of the universe is inconsistent. This universe could not have come about naturally. If species could co- exist naturally and fulfill their needs naturally, why they die? A biological process cannot describe this complex set of choices we make through our conscience to uniformly identify right from wrong. Islamic Economics Project

17 Thesis of Religion If we restrict the scope of evolution to some aspects; then, it cannot claim to take the place of religion which is a set of comprehensive doctrine i.e. a holistic system of beliefs and practices. If evolution is restricted in just describing ‘how’, then any description of 'how' (either correct or incorrect) does not in principle contradict with the thesis of religion. One cannot avoid the question ‘why’ though. Islamic Economics Project

18 Thesis of Religion Birds fly in winter to avoid cold. They have built-in map and take the best route to avoid flying over sea for most time. Birds few days old and doing it for the first time in life without access to books, journals and experience can never do that as perfectly as they do neither by way of evolution nor by way of social learning. Furthermore, the process, any process, may it be evolution or a sudden big bang, or whatever, does not give any answer to ‘why’. Islamic Economics Project

19 Thesis of Religion If one believes in this life only; then, that person will be more selfish to get everything in this life. If we restrict our existence confined to this world alone with no accountability in afterlife; then, I am "just" as long as I am "just" in front of the society even though there could be sins that society could have never seen me doing. Contrarily, I could be regarded as "unjust" by the society if it convicts me based on evidence which could have been untrue. Life hereafter gives all our actions the meaning by promising each and every soul the equal reward and punishment. Islamic Economics Project

20 Thesis of Religion People can take justice in their own hands if they are allowed absolute freedom. We need institutions which can impose certain restrictions on all of us so that we can enjoy our freedom without denying freedom to others. Islam is also such an institution which though put restrictions on one's absolute freedom (as do all other systems), but Islam not only safeguards the rights of the people, but, more importantly and fundamentally, gives meaning to the life and to our own existence. Islamic Economics Project

21 Quranic Signs & Science Pollination by Female Bees Science recently discovered that worker bees who gather pollen and make the honey are all females. The Quran refers to the bees that generate the honey as females.

22 Quranic Signs & Science Determination of Sex by Male Semen Females have XX chromosomes, that is, they can only give one X chromosome. But since males have XY chromosomes then men can either give the X or the Y chromosome. This means that it is actually the males who determine the sex of the baby. “And He (Allah) creates pairs, male and female, from semen emitted.” (Chapter 53: Verse 45-46) The Quran says that it is the semen that determines whether the baby is male or female. But since semen only comes from males, then this means that it is the males who determine the sex of the baby.

23 Quranic Signs & Science Origin of Universe The universe was opaque to the visible light and photons couldn't travel at all. After the Big Bang, the universe was primarily Hydrogen, Helium and a tiny bit of Lithium. However, when a gas is too hot, it becomes ionized (loses the electrons) and becomes opaque. After 380,000 years, the universe cooled enough and it became transparent to visible light. For other wavelengths, it was opaque for a billion years. However, the Quran correctly said that at the beginning it was SMOKE, that is, a hot non-transparent gas: “Then He directed himself to the Heaven when it was SMOKE, and then said to it and to Earth: "Come willingly or by force" they said "We do come willingly". (Chapter 41: Verse 11)

24 Quranic Signs & Science Moving Nature of Mountains Earth's crust has been slowly moving for billions of years. Not only mountains are still slowly moving, but also the whole continents. Quran says: “You see the mountains and think they are firmly fixed: but they are moving away just like the clouds are moving away.” (Chapter 27: Verse 88)

25 Quranic Signs & Science Revolution of Sun, Moon and the Earth For centuries, it was believed that earth is fixed and the sun, the moon and the planets revolve around it. However 1400 years ago, the Quran said that not only the sun and moon, but even Earth moves in a designated path: “(Allah) created the heavens and the Earth in truth. He overlaps the night over the day and overlaps the day over the night, and enslaved the sun and the moon, ALL MOVE to a prerecorded destiny. Is He not the Exalted, the Forgiver? (Chapter 39: Verse 5)

26 Quranic Signs & Science Expansion of the Universe In the Qur'an, the expansion of the universe was described like this: "And it is We who have constructed the heaven with might, and verily, it is We who are steadily expanding it." (Chapter 51: Verse 47)

27 Quranic Signs & Science Modern Embryology & Stages of Growth Quran points out that a human is created in the mother's womb in three distinct stages. (Chapter 39: verse 6). Indeed, modern embryology has revealed that the baby's embryological development takes place in three distinct regions in the mother's womb.

28 Quranic Signs & Science Non-Mingling Nature of Seas Science recently discovered that seas come together yet do not mingle with one another at all. Because of the physical force called "surface tension", the waters of neighboring seas do not mix. Caused by the difference in the density of their waters, surface tension prevents them from mingling with one another. "He has let loose the two seas, converging together, with a barrier between them they do not break through." (Chapter 55: Verse 19-20)

29 Quranic Signs & Science Varying Colors of Honey The colors of honey vary as stated in the Quran. They change according to the climate, season and weather conditions and the sources where nectar is obtained. “Then eat from all the fruits and flit about the spacious paths of your Lord. There issues from within her abdomens a drink of varying colors, wherein is healing for the people. Verily in this is a sign for those who understand.” (Chapter 16: Verse 69)

30 Thesis of Religion We, humans have not just come in this world today and are now looking for answers. We have history behind us that tells that the Prophets came with the message of Allah and the nations which were "direct recipients" who disbelieved were punished in this world. Christians, Muslims and Jews, all believe in that history and it is our common heritage. Islamic Economics Project

31 Noah’s Ark “‘O Earth! Swallow up your water, and O sky! Withhold (your rain).’ The water was diminished (made to subside) and the Decree (of God) was fulfilled (the destruction of the people of Noah). Quran (Chapter 11: Verse 44) “Because of their sins, they were drowned”. Verse 25, Chapter 71

32 Nation of Lut The people of Lout (Lot) (those dwelt in the towns of Sodom in Palestine) belied the Messengers. When their brother Lout (Lot) said to them: "Will you not fear Allah and obey Him? "Verily! I am a trustworthy Messenger to you. "So fear Allah, keep your duty to Him, and obey me. "No reward do I ask of you for it, my reward is only from the Lord of the 'Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists). "Go you in unto the males of the 'Alamin (mankind), "And leave those whom Allah has created for you to be your wives? Nay, you are a trespassing people!” They said: "If you cease not. O Lout (Lot)! Verily, you will be one of those who are driven out!“ He said: "I am, indeed, of those who disapprove with severe anger and fury your (this evil) action (of sodomy). "My Lord! Save me and my family from what they do.” So We saved him and his family, all, Except an old woman (his wife) among those who remained behind. Then afterward We destroyed the others. And We rained on them a rain (of torment). And how evil was the rain of those who had been warned. Verily, in this is indeed a sign, yet most of them are not believers. (Verse , Chapter 26)

33 Nation of Salih

34 “Will you be left secure in that which you have here? In gardens and springs. And green crops (fields etc.) and date-palms with soft spadix. And you carve houses out of mountains with great skill.”

35 Nation of Aad "Now the 'Ad behaved arrogantly through the land, against (all) reason, and said: "Who is superior to us in strength?" What! Did they not see that God, Who created them, was superior to them in strength? But they continued to reject Our Signs!" (Chapter 41, Verse 15) Do they not travel through the earth and see what was the end of those before them? They were greater in number than these and superior in strength and in the traces in the land: Yet all that they accomplished was of no profit to them. (Chapter 40, Verse 82)


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