3Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) - Introduction An assessment of the impact of a planned activity on the environment”EIA is a planning tool used to predict and evaluate the potentially significant impacts of proposed action and provide a mitigation plan for minimizing adverse impacts for making decision on the proposed project/ program/policyRio principle 17 states “EIA as national instrument, shall be undertaken for the proposed activities that are likely to have a significant adverse impact on the environment and are subject to a decision of a competent national authority”
4EIA – A Tool for Sustainable Development EIA - Tool for integrating objectives of environmental management into decision making process.Environmental (Protection) Act 1986, empowered Central Government to introduce requirement of formal EIA procedure prior to clearance for the projects likely to have significant environmental impacts.Notable(& most important) feature of EIA notification was to treat EIA process as “Statutory requirement” rather than an “Administrative requirement”.
5EIA/EC Process in India Hydro projects, thermal power projects were subjected to environmental assessmentDoE/MoEF was doing all projects requiring PIB approvalEIA for environmental clearance was made mandatory in 1994 under E (P) ActMoEF listed 32 category of listed projects including private investmentsEarlier only MoEF was assigned the responsibility of the appraisal of projects for EIA Clearance5
6Identified Constraints in EC Process under EIA Notification, 1994 Cumbersome procedureDisproportionate details sought with applicationsDelay in appraisal meetingsTime consuming and requiring undue effortReopening of technical issues during various stages of appraisalPoor quality of EIA studies by consultantsDelays by other concerned agencies
7Ownership of EIA Report & Other Documents by the Project Proponent (MoEF OM Dated Dec. 5th, 2011)
8Violation of EPA/EIA/CRZ Notification (MoEF OM Dated Nov. 16th, 2010)
9Steps to be Followed in EIA Study/EC Process Steps to be Followed in EIA Study/EC Process
11EIA Methodology - Preparation of EIA/EMP Report ScreeningScopingBaseline Data CollectionPrediction of ImpactsEvaluation of ImpactsEnvironmental Management Plan (EMP)Post Project Monitoring (PPM)Public hearing
12Steps to be Followed in EIA Study/EC Process Whether Project Requires Environmental Clearance (EC) ( As per EIA Notification (2006) as amended till date?Whether it is NH/SH Project /or Expansion Project in Hilly Area above 100m MSL?What is the Category of Project ( Category “A” or “B”)?Whether EC will be Provided by MoEF (As Category “A” or Category “B” Project due to absence of duly constituted SEIAA?Whether “GC” Applies or Not?Whether they Require Forest/Wildlife/CRZ Clearance Also ?What are existing MoEF provisions/rules/procedures?If EC (As Per EIA Notification) is Required Along with other Environmental Clearances?
13Contd…Depending Upon the Answers, we know that What Clearances have to obtained and where we have to approach for EC & Submit Duly Filled Form 1 with Pre-Feasibility Report (or DPR as required) along with Proposed ToR to the Concerned EAC of MoEF/SEIAAFor Other “Clearances” Separate Forms Have to be Filled as per the Prescribed ProformaEAC Prescribes additional ToR depending on project setting/description & environmental settingIf project involves Forest Clearance – Ensure that a formal request in Prescribed Proforma has been made to Concerned State Government/ Forest Deptt. for Stage –I ClearanceIf it involves “Wildlife Clearance” – Separate Form has to be Submitted – Before the ToR Stage
14Steps to be Followed in EIA Study/EC Process- Contd. Carryout EIA Study as per ToR and additional ToR provided to project proponentGenerally public hearing is mandatory except for projects which do not require additional land acquisitionConduct PH (coordinated by concerned SPCB) in affected districts as per the specified procedure (based on Draft EIA Report)Include comments/clarifications in Final EIA ReportPresent the Final EIA Report to EACProvide Clarifications (If Sought by EAC)If the project require Forest Clearance, Stage-I clearance must be available with project proponent
15Generic Structure of EIA Report as per EIA Notification, 2006 S. NO.EIA STRUCTURECONTENTS1.IntroductionPurpose of report; Identification of project & project proponent; Brief description of nature, size, location and importance of project to country, region; Scope of study – details of regulatory scoping carried out (As per Terms of Reference)2.Project DescriptionCondensed description of those aspects of the project likely to cause environmental effects. Details of the following: Type of project; Need for the project; Location (maps showing general location, specific location, project boundary & project site layout); Size or magnitude of operation; Proposed schedule for approval and implementation; Project description. Including drawings showing project layout, components of project etc. Schematic representations of the feasibility drawings which give information important for EIA purpose; Description of mitigation measures to meet environmental standards, environmental operating conditions,3.Description of the EnvironmentStudy area, period, components & methodology; Establishment of baseline for valued environmental components, as identified in scope; Base maps of all environmental components4.Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation MeasuresDetails of Investigated Environmental impacts due to project location, possible accidents, project design, project construction, regular operations, final decommissioning or rehabilitation of a completed project; Measures for minimizing adverse impacts identified; Irreversible & Irretrievable commitments of environmental components Assessment of significance of impacts; Mitigation measures5.Analysis of Alternatives (Technology& Site)In case, scoping exercise results in need for alternatives: Description of each alternative; Summary of adverse impacts of each alternative; Mitigation measures proposed for each alternative and; Selection of alternative6.Environmental Monitoring ProgramTechnical aspects of monitoring the effectiveness of mitigation measures7.Additional StudiesPublic Consultation; Risk assessment; Social Impact Assessment.; R&R Action Plans8.Project BenefitsImprovements in physical infrastructure; Improvements in social infrastructure; Employment potential –skilled; semi-skilled and unskilled; Other tangible benefits9.Environmental Cost Benefit AnalysisIf recommended at the Scoping stage10.EMPDescription of administrative aspects of ensuring that mitigative measures are implemented & their effectiveness monitored, after approval of the EIA11Summary & ConclusionOverall justification for implementation of project; Explanation of how, adverse effects have been mitigated12.Disclosure of Consultants EngagedThe names of the Consultants engaged with their brief resume and nature of Consultancy rendered
16Screening/Threshold Criteria for Road/ Highway Project as per EIA Notification 2006 (Amendments) Project or ActivityCategory With Threshold LimitCondition, if anyAB7 (f)Highwaysi) New National Highways; and ii) Expansion of National Highways greater than 30km involving additional right of way greater than 20m involving land acquisition and passing through more than one State.(i) All New State Highways Project;and(ii) State Highway expansion project in Hilly Terrain (above 1,000 m AMSL) and or ecologically sensitive areasGeneral Conditions shall apply, any project or activity specified in category “B” will be treated as Category A, if located in whole or in part within 10km from the boundary of:i) Protected Areas notified under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972ii) Critically Polluted areas as identified by the Central Pollution Control Board from time to time,iii) Notified Eco- sensitive areas by MoEFiv) inter-state boundaries and international boundariesNote: Highways include expressways.
17Guidelines of World Bank on the requirements of the Contents of an EIA report Executive SummaryPolicy, Legal, Institutional FrameworkProject DescriptionBaseline DataEnvironmental Impact AnalysisCost/Benefit AnalysisAnalysis of AlternativesMitigation PlanInstitution BuildingEnvironmental Monitoring PlanConsultationHighLow
18Guidelines of European Bank for Reconstruction & Development (EBRD) on the requirements of the Contents of an EIA reportExecutive SummaryPolicy, Legal, Institutional FrameworkProject DescriptionBaseline DataEnvironmental Impact AnalysisCost/Benefit AnalysisAnalysis of AlternativesMitigation PlanInstitution BuildingEnvironmental Monitoring PlanConsultationHighLow
19Guidelines of Asian Development Bank (ADB) on the requirements of the Contents of an EIA report Executive SummaryPolicy, Legal, Institutional FrameworkProject DescriptionBaseline DataEnvironmental Impact AnalysisCost/Benefit AnalysisAnalysis of AlternativesMitigation PlanInstitution BuildingEnvironmental Monitoring PlanConsultationHigh
20Guidelines of MoEF on the requirements of the Contents of an EIA report Executive SummaryPolicy, Legal, Institutional FrameworkProject DescriptionBaseline DataEnvironmental Impact AnalysisCost/Benefit AnalysisAnalysis of AlternativesMitigation PlanInstitution BuildingEnvironmental Monitoring PlanConsultationHighLow
21Characteristics of an EIA Report Emphasis on four aspects:a) Layoutb) Presentationc) Content andd) Summary
22Brief description of Content IntroductionProject DescriptionAlternativesBaseline EnvironmentImpact IdentificationEvaluation and Prediction of ImpactsEnvironmental Management and Monitoring Plan
23Baseline Data Collection Baseline Data Collection
24Points to Be Considered for Baseline Data Generation Improvement in the approach to select the monitoring networkImprovement in the approach to design the monitoring networkImprovement in the quality of Baseline dataDevelopment of standardized data base formatCreation of a national data bank on environmental quality using GIS as a tool.
25Baseline Data Collection Primary Data ( Actual On-Field Collection) and/orSecondary Data (From Reliable/Authentic Sources )Air Quality (Along with Meteorological Parameters)NoiseWater Environment ( Ground & Surface)Quality & Quantity AssessmentFlora & FaunaSocio-EconomicAll Information are to collected within 10Km / CoI for Road & Highway Projects
26Ambient Air Quality Standards Ambient Air Quality Standards
27National Ambient Air Quality Standards, 2009 *Annual Arithmetic Mean of minimum 104 measurements in a year taken twice a week 24 hourly at uniform interval.**24-hourly/8-hourly values should be met 98% of the time in a year. However, 2% of the time, it may exceed but not on the two consecutive days.
29Ambient Air Quality Standards in Respect of Noise Category of AreaLimit in dB(A) LeqDay timeNight timeIndustrial Area7570Commercial Area6555Residential Area45Silence Zone5040Day Time: 6 am to 10 pmNight time:10 pm to 6 amSilence zone: Areas upto 100 m around premises such as hospitals, educational institutions and courts.The Silence zones are to be declared by the Competent Authority
30Environmental Management Plan (EMP) Environmental Management Plan (EMP)
31Elements of EMPAvoid adverse impacts as far as possible by use of preventative measures (Impact Avoidance)Minimize or reduce adverse impacts to ‘as low as practicable’ levels (Impact Minimization)Remedy or compensate for adverse residual impacts which are unavoidable and cannot be reduced further (Impact Compensation)
32Phases of EMP Pre-Construction /Design Stage/Phase Construction Phase (Including Site Clearing Operations)OperationEnvironmental Issues may vary in New Project (Greenfield) as compared to up-gradation/widening road/highway project (depending on project & environmental setting)EMP may also accordingly vary
33Issues to be covered/addressed in EMP Applicable Environmental LawsWays & means to ensure compliance of Environmental Laws /Rules/RegulationsIdentification/Delegation of the responsibilities to ensure complianceSpecial emphasis onAvailability of raw materials (water, sand, aggregate, soil, fly ash, etc.) (quality, quantity & identification of their sources)Tree cuttingConstruction of bye-passes (effect due to acquisition of prime agricultural land
34Issues to be Covered/Addressed In EMP- Contd. Compliance of various IRC Guidelines MoRTH Specifications to be ensuredRoad safety considerations are integral part of EIA/EMP ReportDetailed Environmental Monitoring Programme/Budget for EMP has to be indicated in the EMP
36Public Hearing Related Issues Public Hearing Related Issues
3728th. Sept.11- OM Public Hearing PHs shall be supervised by DM/District Collector/Dy. Commissioner or their representative (not below ADM), assisted by SPCB/ UTPP Representative.Date, time and venue postponement shall not be undertakenIf done due to Exceptional Circumstances, Postponement shall be displayed and notified to the publicFresh dates to be taken and notified by SPCB/UTPCC member secretary and DM/ DC/ Deputy Commissioner
38Presentation before Appraisal Committee for Prior EC Presentation before Appraisal Committee for Prior EC
39Self-evaluation of Quality and Adequacy of EIA report ReadabilityWrite ClearlyRemove all ambiguitiesAvoid use of technical/jargon; all technical terms should be clearly explained.
40Self-evaluation of Quality and Adequacy of EIA report Consideration and focusDo not slant or misinterpret findingsAvoid confusion or mix-up among economic, environmental, and ecological impacts and productivityAvoid unsubstantiated generalitiesAvoid conflicting statements
41Self-evaluation of Quality and Adequacy of EIA report PresentationUse well-defined, acceptable, qualitative termsQuantify factors, effects, uses and activities that are readily amenable to quantification.
42Self-evaluation of Quality and Adequacy of EIA report DataIdentify all sourcesUse up-to-date dataUse field data collection programmes as necessaryUse technically approved data collection proceduresGive reasons for use of unofficial data.
43Self-evaluation of Quality and Adequacy of EIA report Methods and ProceduresUse quantitative estimation procedures, techniques and models for arrival at the best estimates.Identify and describe all procedures and models usedIdentify sources of all judgmentsUse procedures and models acceptable by professional standards.
44Self-evaluation of Quality and Adequacy of EIA report Interpretation of FindingsConsider and discuss all impact areas before any are dismissed as not applicable.Analyse controversial issues, and discuss the implications of all results
45Self-evaluation of Quality and Adequacy of EIA report Interpretation of FindingsConsider the implications for each area of a range of outcomes having significant uncertaintyAnalyse each alternative in detail and give reasons for not selecting it.Scrutinize and justify all interpretation, procedures, and findings that must stand up under expert professional scrutiny.
46Documentation requirements for submission of EIA report Feasibility report (One copy);Site clearance for site specific projects mentioned in the EIA notification;EIA and EMP reports (20 copies);No Objection certificate from SPCB’s and other local authorities;Duly filled in Application form (Environmental Appraisal Questionnaire);
47Documentation requirements for submission of EIA report Risk analysis Report (20 copies), in case of projects involving hazardous substances;Rehabilitation plan where displacement of people is anticipated;Commitment regarding availability of water and electricity from competent authorities;Clearance from Airports Authority of India, if applicable; andDetails of public hearing conducted by the concerned SPCB.
48How to prepare the findings for Reviewer? To what extent are both the beneficial and adverse environmental effects clearly explained?What are the risks of adverse consequences and how are they evaluated?What is the scope of the EIA in terms of external factors and time lag effects?What (if any) are the impacts on environmentally sensitive areas, endangered species and their habitats, and recreational/aesthetic areas?
49How to prepare the findings for Reviewer? What alternatives are considered: no project? other sites? other technologies?What lessons from previous similar projects are incorporated?How do the environmental effects change the costs and benefits of the project?What adverse effects are unavoidable?What public participation and review of project plans or the EIA have occurred?
50How to prepare the findings for Reviewer? What mitigation measures are proposed, and who would be responsible for implementing them?What are the parameters to be monitored so that the sate of the environment can be studied throughout the project?
51Presentation Before EAC/SEAC Consultant will have to make the presentationHigher official from project proponent/user agency has to accompany consultant during presentation/discussionEIA Report has to submitted in time to all concernedSpecial emphasis has to be given to various issues raised in Public HearingPoint-wise replies/presentation is requiredNo lengthy introduction/argumentsAll supporting documents/information must be kept in readinessIf project involves some special environmental issue/adequate emphasis to be made in the Presentation