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Environmental Impact Assessment Frank van Gemert NRG, Radiation & Environment The Netherlands.

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Impact Assessment Frank van Gemert NRG, Radiation & Environment The Netherlands."— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Impact Assessment Frank van Gemert NRG, Radiation & Environment The Netherlands

2 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment2

3 3 Contents Introduction Why ? How ? Who ? When ? €, £, $ ? Conclusions

4 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment4 Introduction Environmental Impact Assessment = EIA

5 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment5 Why ? Regulatory requirements Public Involvement

6 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment6 Regulatory requirements COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 97/11/EC of 3 March 1997 amending DIRECTIVE 85/337/EEC of 27 June 1985 on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment. … See Chapter 5

7 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment7 Public involvement Takes a lot of time Creates additional burdens Environmental issues are for experts But:

8 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment8 Public involvement Brings additional expertise in the decision making process Results in better implemented and respected decisions Makes environmental legislation more effective

9 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment9 How ? A phased process Screening Scoping Impact Evaluation Impact Statement Review and decision

10 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment10 How ? A phased process Screening Scoping Impact Evaluation Impact Statement Review and decision

11 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment11 Screening Determine if an EIA is required EU guidance to facilitate the screening process

12 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment12 Annex I or II ? Mandatory list ? Exclusion list ? Case-by-case; sign. effect ? Natura 2000; sign. effect ? yesno Steps in screening noyes noyes XX X Record the decision

13 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment13 Selection criteria case by case screening Characteristics of projects Location of Projects Characteristics of the potential impact

14 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment14 Screening tools Screening checklist Checklist of criteria for evaluating the significance of environmental effects

15 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment15 Screening checklist Characteristics of projects Location of Projects Characteristics of the potential impact

16 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment16 Characteristics of projects Size of the project Cumulation with other projects Use of natural resources Production of waste Pollution and nuisances Risk of accidents

17 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment17 Location of projects Existing land use Relative abundance, quality and regenerative capacity if natural resources in the area Absorption capacity of the natural environment

18 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment18 Characteristics of the potential impact Extent of the impact (area, size of population) Transfrontier nature of the impact Magnitude and complexity of the impact Probability of the impact Duration, frequency and reversibility of the impact

19 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment19 How ? A phased process Screening Scoping Impact Evaluation Impact Statement Review and decision

20 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment20 Scoping Must ensure that the environmental studies provide all the relevant information on: The (most important) impacts The alternatives to the project Any other matter to be included

21 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment21 Scoping On request of the developer or Mandatory (in some member states)

22 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment22 Requested scoping Only when requested by the EIA developer Is undertaken by the Competent Authority Requires consulting of environmental authorities May involve consultation of other interested parties and the general public Results in a “Scoping Opinion” which forms the terms of reference for the EIA

23 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment23 Mandatory scoping Is undertaken by: (a) the Competent Authority or (b) the EIA developer

24 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment24 Mandatory scoping by developer A draft “Scoping Report” is prepared Requires consulting of environmental authorities May involve consultation of other interested parties and the general public Results in a “Scoping Report” which forms the terms of reference for the EIA

25 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment25 Mandatory scoping by CA Undertaken by the Competent authority or by an independent body on behalf of the CA Requires consulting of environmental authorities by the CA May involve consultation of other interested parties and the general public Results in a “Scoping Opinion” which forms the terms of reference for the EIA

26 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment26 Scoping Reports and Opinions Identify the types of environmental impacts to be investigated and reported and may also cover: Alternatives to consider Baseline surveys & investigations to carry out Methods & criteria to be used for prediction & evaluation of effects Mitigation measures to consider Organisations to consult Structure, content and length of the Environmental Information (EIS)

27 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment27 The provision of a Scoping Opinion does not preclude the competent authority from subsequently requiring the developer to submit further information if the CA considers that it is necessary. but:

28 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment28 Good scoping: Will involve the CA and the developer in a dialogue about the project and the issues it raises. Does not end with the delivery of the Scoping Report or Opinion.

29 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment29 Information for scoping Preliminary data collection and field work; Checklists; –Scoping checklist part 1 & 2; –Criteria for evaluation the significance of impacts; –Potential alternatives and mitigation measures.

30 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment30 Scoping checklist part 1 – project characteristics Physical changes in the locality; Use of natural resources; Harmful materials or substances; Produce of wastes; Emissions to air; Noise, light, electromagnetic radiation etc.; Contamination of land or ground or surface water; Risk of accidents; Social changes; Other factors.

31 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment31 Scoping checklist

32 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment32 Include: Secondary or higher order effects Indirect effects Cumulative effects Temporary or intermittent effects Effects resulting from abnormal events

33 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment33 Scoping checklist part 2 – characteristics of the environment Protected or sensitive species or fauna; Routes or facilities used by the public; Location to extreme climatic conditions; Employment; Community cohesion; Plans for future land use around the location; ….

34 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment34

35 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment35

36 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment36 Consultation Environmental authorities –Regional, local –Pollution control –Health & safety…….. Interested parties –Environmental & social interest groups –Employees’ organisations (e.g. unions) –Research institutes… General public –Residents –Local community groups….

37 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment37 Effective consultation Provide enough information; Make clear scoping is not about selling a project, but about hearing and understanding views; Provide sufficient time; The scoping stage does not preclude from making comments in a later stage; Ensure that views expressed are taken into account.

38 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment38 Scoping - key questions What effects could this project have on the environment? Which effects need particular attention in the environmental studies? Which alternatives and mitigating measures ought to be considered?

39 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment39 How ? A phased process Screening Scoping Impact Evaluation Impact Statement Review and decision

40 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment40 Environmental impact evaluation Description of the environmental baseline Impact identification Assessment of significance of impacts Mitigation measures Monitoring plan

41 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment41 Environmental baseline Describes the environment prior to decommissioning: –Natural environment (e.g. air and water quality, flora and fauna) –Socio-economic factors (e.g. land use, infrastructure, economy)

42 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment42 Impact identification Actions in the decommissioning project (with potential to cause impact) Environmental factors (potentially affected by these impacts) Identification matrix

43 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment43 Impact identification matrix (example)

44 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment44 Assessment of significance of impacts Impact weighting schemes Take account of opinions of stakeholder groups Risk perception –Professionals: probabilistic approach –Other stakeholders: consequences of potential effects (even with very low probability

45 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment45 Mitigation measures Determine potential effectiveness for each scenario Demonstrate that further improvements are not justified Re-assess the environmental impact of the project

46 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment46 Development of a monitoring plan Objective : Measure the impact of the decommissioning project –Real impact vs. estimated impact –Effectiveness of mitigating measures Parameters Methods Frequency Expected values

47 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment47 How ? A phased process Screening Scoping Impact Evaluation Impact Statement Review and decision

48 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment48 Environmental impact statement (EIS) Provide information to: Decision makers People potentially effected by the project

49 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment49 EIS = tool to communicate Clear structure Description of procedure Concise, comprehensive and objective Consistent terminology, glossary References to information sources Description of methods used for studies Clear discussion of alternatives Non-technical summary

50 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment50 How ? A phased process Screening Scoping Impact Evaluation Impact Statement Review and decision

51 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment51 Review before decision making Mandatory or ‘only’ good practice By competent authority or by independent organisation Aims: –Information adequate for decision making? –Complies with requirements of legislation?

52 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment52 Review checklist Description of the project –Objectives and physical characteristics of the project –Size of the project –Production processes and resources used –Residues and emissions –Risks of accidents and hazards –Other questions

53 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment53 Review checklist Consideration of alternatives Description of the environment likely to be affected –Aspects of the environment –Data collection and survey methods –Other questions

54 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment54 Review checklist Description of the likely effects –Scoping of effects –Prediction of direct effects –Prediction of other effects –Evaluation of significance of effects –Impact assessment methods –Other questions

55 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment55 Review checklist Description of mitigation Non technical summary Quality of presentation

56 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment56 Use of review checklist 1.Briefly overview the EIS 2.Decide which questions are relevant for the project 3.Indicate special features not identified in the checklist 4.Review the EIS for the relevant questions 5.Specify missing information

57 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment57 EIS decision Competent authority: Are the environmental implications of the planned decommissioning project acceptable?

58 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment58 Who ?

59 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment59 When ? Typical duration of EIA preparation for NPP decommissioning: –Detailed assessment and preparation of EIS: 9-15 months –Full EIA: 1-3 years To reduce the overall level of resources: –Involvement of competent authorities as soon as possible –Initial feasibility studies as soon as possible

60 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment60 €, £, $ ? Depends on e.g.: Size and complexness of the installation Approach to scoping –Number of options in detailed assessment –Identification of key impacts Approach to public involvement Availability of existing data

61 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment61 €, £, $ ? EIA costs are typically 1 % of the total project costs Range: 0.01 – 5 % Typical cost of an EIA for NPP decommissioning: M€ 1 – 1.5 Up to M€ 5 if existing information is inadequate or significant environmental monitoring is required

62 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment62 Conclusions Why ? –Regulatory requirements –Public involvement How ? –Phased process Screening Scoping Impact evaluation and EI Statement Review (and decision)

63 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment63 Conclusions Who ? –Competent authorities –Project developer –Independent organisation –Stakeholders –General public Dialogue to reach consensus

64 Eundetraf II - Environmental Impact Assessment64 Conclusions When ? –Start dialogue early –Typical duration for NPP 1-3 years Costs ? –Depends on project scale, available information, dialogue –1 % (0.01 – 5 %) of project costs –Typical costs for NPP M€ 1 – 1.5

65 Frank van Gemert NRG Radiation & Environment


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