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Financing Residential Real Estate Lesson 3: Residential Mortgage Lenders.

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Presentation on theme: "Financing Residential Real Estate Lesson 3: Residential Mortgage Lenders."— Presentation transcript:

1 Financing Residential Real Estate Lesson 3: Residential Mortgage Lenders

2 Introduction In this lesson, we will cover: different types of mortgage lenders the Depression the savings and loan crisis recent trends in the mortgage industry

3 Types of Mortgage Lenders Five main sources of residential mortgage financing in the primary market:  Commercial banks  Savings banks  Savings and loan associations  Credit unions  Mortgage companies

4 Types of Mortgage Lenders Commercial banks were originally developed to serve commercial entities (merchants and businesses). Originally, residential mortgages not significant part of their lending business. Commercial banks

5 Commercial Banks Regulatory changes and expansion of secondary market increased commercial bank mortgage lending.

6 Commercial Banks Regulatory changes and expansion of secondary market increased commercial bank mortgage lending. Recently, commercial banks made 20% of country’s mortgage loans. Commercial lending is still primary focus of commercial banks.

7 Commercial Banks Commercial banks are either:

8 Commercial Banks Commercial banks are either:  national banks chartered by the federal government, or

9 Commercial Banks Commercial banks are either:  national banks chartered by the federal government, or  state banks chartered by the state government.

10 Commercial Banks Investment banks = securities firms that:  raise capital for corporations,  arrange issuance of government and corporate bonds,  manage corporate finances, and  handle mergers and acquisitions. Distinguished from investment banks

11 Commercial Banks Glass-Steagall Act was adopted in 1933 and required banks to choose between commercial and investment banking services.  prohibited banks from providing both  illegal for banks to be involved in insurance business  intended to protect public from conflicts of interest Distinguished from investment banks

12 Glass-Steagall Act gradually undermined and eventually repealed in 1999 by the Financial Services Modernization Act. It’s now legal for holding company to have a bank, securities firm, and insurance company as subsidiaries.

13 Types of Mortgage Lenders Savings banks began by offering financial services to small depositors, especially immigrants and working class. They also provide:  home mortgage loans, Savings banks

14 Types of Mortgage Lenders Savings banks began by offering financial services to small depositors, especially immigrants and working class. They also provide:  home mortgage loans,  consumer loans, Savings banks

15 Types of Mortgage Lenders Savings banks began by offering financial services to small depositors, especially immigrants and working class. They also provide:  home mortgage loans,  consumer loans, and  financing for purchase of furniture, appliances, and cars. Savings banks

16 Savings Banks Also called mutual savings banks because originally organized as mutual companies.  Before 1982, only 16 states had chartering procedures for mutual savings banks.

17 Savings Banks Garn-St. Germain Act passed in 1982, giving savings banks option of a federal charter.

18 Savings Banks Garn-St. Germain Act passed in 1982, giving savings banks option of a federal charter. Can be organized as:  mutual companies,

19 Savings Banks Garn-St. Germain Act passed in 1982, giving savings banks option of a federal charter. Can be organized as:  mutual companies, or  stock companies.

20 Types of Mortgage Lenders Savings and loan associations (S&Ls) developed in nineteenth century. Formed in local communities to finance home construction. Savings and loan associations

21 Types of Mortgage Lenders Savings and loan associations (S&Ls) developed in nineteenth century. Formed in local communities to finance home construction.  Members pooled their assets and took turns using money to build houses. Savings and loan associations

22 Types of Mortgage Lenders Savings and loan associations (S&Ls) developed in nineteenth century. Formed in local communities to finance home construction.  Members pooled their assets and took turns using money to build houses.  After financing needs satisfied, association dissolved. Savings and loan associations

23 Savings and Loan Associations S&Ls became permanent institutions, providing savings accounts to non-member depositors.  Deregulation during 1970s and 1980s allowed S&Ls to offer checking accounts and other types of lending.

24 Savings and Loan Associations S&Ls and savings banks are also called thrifts or “the thrift industry” because of traditional emphasis on savings accounts for small depositors.

25 Types of Mortgage Lenders A credit union is a nonprofit depository institution that serves the members of a particular group. Credit unions

26 Types of Mortgage Lenders A credit union is a nonprofit depository institution that serves the members of a particular group.  Originally didn’t make mortgage loans. Credit unions

27 Types of Mortgage Lenders A credit union is a nonprofit depository institution that serves the members of a particular group.  Originally didn’t make mortgage loans.  Specialized in small, unsecured personal loans. Credit unions

28 Credit Unions Credit unions emphasized home equity loans, which are mortgages on a borrower’s equity in a home he already owns.  Generally, these are short-term loans.

29 Credit Unions Deregulation in 1980s allowed credit unions to offer long-term mortgages. Credit unions are:  exempt from taxation

30 Credit Unions Deregulation in 1980s allowed credit unions to offer long-term mortgages. Credit unions are:  exempt from taxation  able to offer lower interest rates on loans

31 Credit Unions Deregulation in 1980s allowed credit unions to offer long-term mortgages. Credit unions are:  exempt from taxation  able to offer lower interest rates on loans  higher rates on deposits

32 Summary Types of Lenders  Commercial banks  Investment banks  Savings banks  Savings and loan associations  Thrifts  Credit unions

33 Types of Mortgage Lenders Mortgage companies, which focus on mortgage loans, were first established in the 1930s. Mortgage companies

34 Types of Mortgage Lenders Mortgage companies, which focus on mortgage loans, were first established in the 1930s.  not depository institutions Mortgage companies

35 Types of Mortgage Lenders Mortgage companies, which focus on mortgage loans, were first established in the 1930s.  not depository institutions  also called mortgage banking companies or mortgage bankers Mortgage companies

36 Mortgage Companies Mortgage companies can’t use depositors’ savings to fund loans because they’re not depository institutions. How mortgage banking works

37 Mortgage Companies Mortgage companies can’t use depositors’ savings to fund loans because they’re not depository institutions. To raise capital, mortgage companies may do one of two things: How mortgage banking works

38 1.Mortgage company borrows money from a commercial bank.

39  Uses funds to originate mortgages.

40 1.Mortgage company borrows money from a commercial bank.  Uses funds to originate mortgages.  Sells mortgages to secondary market investors.

41 1.Mortgage company borrows money from a commercial bank.  Uses funds to originate mortgages.  Sells mortgages to secondary market investors.  Company uses proceeds to originate more mortgages and pay bank loan.

42 2.Mortgage company acts as a loan correspondent.

43  Makes loans to home buyers on investor’s behalf.

44 2.Mortgage company acts as a loan correspondent.  Makes loans to home buyers on investor’s behalf.  Services the loans for the investor (collects and processes payments).

45 2.Mortgage company acts as a loan correspondent.  Makes loans to home buyers on investor’s behalf.  Services the loans for the investor (collects and processes payments).  Investor pays servicing fees.

46 2.Mortgage company acts as a loan correspondent.  Makes loans to home buyers on investor’s behalf.  Services the loans for the investor (collects and processes payments).  Investor pays servicing fees.  Correspondents usually work with large investors operating on national scale.

47 Mortgage Companies Mortgage companies keep few loans in portfolio. Loans are either made on behalf of a large investor or sold on the secondary market. How mortgage banking works

48 Mortgage Companies Independent mortgage companies are mortgage companies not affiliated with a bank or thrift. Independent mortgage companies

49 Mortgage Companies Independent mortgage companies are mortgage companies not affiliated with a bank or thrift.  Not subject to same regulation and supervision as banks and thrifts. Independent mortgage companies

50 Types of Mortgage Lenders Mortgage banker Originates loans, which includes processing borrower’s application, underwriting decision, and funding the loan. Mortgage banker vs. mortgage broker

51 Types of Mortgage Lenders Mortgage banker Originates loans, which includes processing borrower’s application, underwriting decision, and funding the loan. Mortgage broker Not a lender, but an intermediary who brings a borrower together with a lender in exchange for a commission. Mortgage banker vs. mortgage broker

52 Types of Mortgage Lenders Some mortgage companies do both mortgage banking and mortgage brokering. Mortgage banker vs. mortgage broker

53 Types of Mortgage Lenders Some mortgage companies do both mortgage banking and mortgage brokering. Real estate agents in some states act as mortgage brokers. Mortgage banker vs. mortgage broker

54 Types of Mortgage Lenders Most important type of private lender for home buyers is the home seller. Private lenders

55 Types of Mortgage Lenders Most important type of private lender for home buyers is the home seller. Sellers often provide some or all of the financing.  Common when institutional loans are hard to get or interest rates are high. Private lenders

56 Types of Mortgage Lenders Lending institutions have become “financial supermarkets” offering a wide range of services and loans. Comparing lenders

57 Types of Mortgage Lenders Lending institutions have become “financial supermarkets” offering a wide range of services and loans.  Look at lender’s size, style, competence, and integrity. Comparing lenders

58 Summary Mortgage Companies & Private Lenders  Mortgage companies  Mortgage banker  Loan correspondent  Independent mortgage companies  Private lenders

59 Government Intervention Two other federal interventions in mortgage industry (aside from creation of secondary market agencies). Occurred during:  1) the Depression, and  2) the savings and loan crisis of the 1980s.

60 The Depression As U.S. expanded westward, tremendous growth occurred. Home purchase loans were considered good investments.  Loans were to be repaid in 5 years.  Value of collateral much higher than loan amounts.

61 The Depression After the stock market crash, unemployment rose dramatically.  Hundreds of thousands of home owners defaulted on their mortgages.  Many financial institutions failed.  Mortgage lending and home construction virtually ceased. Foreclosure epidemic

62 The Depression Several agencies and programs were instituted, including: Federal Housing Administration (FHA); Federal Home Loan Bank Board (FHLBB); and Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae). New Deal initiatives

63 The Depression Depression foreclosures led to the introduction of long-term, fixed-rate, amortized mortgage loans. Transforming home mortgages

64 The Depression Depression foreclosures led to the introduction of long-term, fixed-rate, amortized mortgage loans. FHA-insured loans had 20- or 30-year terms.  Easier for home buyers to avoid default and foreclosure. Transforming home mortgages

65 The Depression By 1940s, long-term loans became standard of the industry. Today, home buyers choose adjustable-rate mortgages over fixed-rate. Transforming home mortgages

66 The Savings and Loan Crisis From 1950s to 1980s, savings and loans were the largest source of mortgage financing.

67 The Savings and Loan Crisis From 1950s to 1980s, savings and loans were the largest source of mortgage financing. Due to S&Ls’ ability to make long term loans.

68 The Savings and Loan Crisis From 1950s to 1980s, savings and loans were the largest source of mortgage financing. Due to S&Ls’ ability to make long term loans.  Government limited amount of long-term lending by commercial banks.

69 The Savings and Loan Crisis In those days, primary distinction between S&Ls and commercial banks:  S&Ls held only savings and time deposits.  Commercial banks primarily held demand deposits.

70 The Savings and Loan Crisis Demand deposits Kept in checking accounts for use in transactions such as bill paying. Demand deposits vs. time deposits

71 The Savings and Loan Crisis Demand deposits Kept in checking accounts for use in transactions such as bill paying.  Can be withdrawn on demand. Demand deposits vs. time deposits

72 The Savings and Loan Crisis Demand deposits Kept in checking accounts for use in transactions such as bill paying.  Can be withdrawn on demand. Time deposits Can be withdrawn without penalty only after giving notice to the financial institution. Demand deposits vs. time deposits

73 The Savings and Loan Crisis Savings deposits May be withdrawn without notice, but are generally intended to remain on deposit for a long time. Savings deposits

74 The Savings and Loan Crisis In 1970s and early 1980s, market interest rates soared and were extremely volatile. Deregulation

75 The Savings and Loan Crisis In 1970s and early 1980s, market interest rates soared and were extremely volatile. Regulations limited how much interest S&Ls could pay depositors, making it difficult to offer attractive returns. Deregulation

76 The Savings and Loan Crisis In 1970s and early 1980s, market interest rates soared and were extremely volatile. Regulations limited how much interest S&Ls could pay depositors, making it difficult to offer attractive returns.  S&Ls lost a lot of deposits to more competitive investments. Deregulation

77 The Savings and Loan Crisis Congress addressed S&L problems with: Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act of 1980, and Garn-St. Germain Depository Institutions Act of Deregulation

78 The Savings and Loan Crisis These laws: Allowed S&Ls to pay higher interest rates. Deregulation

79 The Savings and Loan Crisis These laws: Allowed S&Ls to pay higher interest rates. Preempted state usury laws to allow S&Ls to charge higher interest rates on loans. Deregulation

80 The Savings and Loan Crisis These laws: Allowed S&Ls to pay higher interest rates. Preempted state usury laws to allow S&Ls to charge higher interest rates on loans. Able to make more consumer loans and nonresidential loans. Deregulation

81 The Savings and Loan Crisis S&Ls tried new, riskier investments, but these failed in economic slumps. Deregulation

82 The Savings and Loan Crisis S&Ls tried new, riskier investments, but these failed in economic slumps.  Hundreds of federally insured S&Ls became insolvent. Deregulation

83 The Savings and Loan Crisis S&Ls tried new, riskier investments, but these failed in economic slumps.  Hundreds of federally insured S&Ls became insolvent.  Led to a $124 billion industry bail-out by the federal government. Deregulation

84 The Savings and Loan Crisis Congress passed the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act (FIRREA) in Reform

85 The Savings and Loan Crisis Congress passed the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act (FIRREA) in FIRREA did several things, including: Imposed new rules on S&L lending, to prevent high-risk transactions. Reform

86 The Savings and Loan Crisis Congress passed the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act (FIRREA) in FIRREA did several things, including: Imposed new rules on S&L lending, to prevent high-risk transactions. Reorganized federal agencies that supervise/insure financial institutions. Reform

87 Replaced Federal Home Loan Bank Board with the Federal Housing Finance Board and Office of Thrift Supervision. Reorganized Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) to cover S&L deposits. Formed the Resolution Trust Corporation to manage insolvent S&Ls.

88 The Savings and Loan Crisis In last 20 years, mortgage companies have come to dominate mortgage market. Changing market shares

89 The Savings and Loan Crisis In last 20 years, mortgage companies have come to dominate mortgage market. Factors of the shift in the market were:  S&L crisis  Decline in number of S&Ls  Growth of secondary market Changing market shares

90 Summary Government Intervention  The Depression  Loan terms  Savings and loan crisis  Demand deposits  Time deposits  Savings deposits  FIRREA

91 Mortgage Industry Trends Processing time of loan applications reduced by: loan origination software, automatic underwriting systems, and credit scoring. Technological changes

92 Mortgage Industry Trends Processing time of loan applications reduced by: loan origination software, automatic underwriting systems, and credit scoring. Internet lending is gradually gaining popularity with home buyers as well. Technological changes

93 Mortgage Industry Trends In 1980s and 1990s, transformation of primary market from local to national focus accelerated. Nationwide lending

94 Mortgage Industry Trends In 1980s and 1990s, transformation of primary market from local to national focus accelerated. Result: consolidation of mortgage industry. Large, nationwide lenders now dominate the market. Nationwide lending

95 Mortgage Industry Trends Effects of consolidation is up for debate. Some argue that reduced competition among lenders means fewer options for home buyers. Nationwide lending

96 Mortgage Industry Trends Effects of consolidation is up for debate. Some argue reduced competition among lenders means fewer options for home buyers. Others argue that large lenders can take advantage of economies of scale.  Higher volume of business = greater efficiency and lower per-unit costs. Nationwide lending

97 Mortgage Industry Trends Distinction between retail lending and wholesale lending is important. Retail lending = lender works directly with home buyers. Wholesale lending

98 Mortgage Industry Trends Distinction between retail lending and wholesale lending is important. Retail lending = lender works directly with home buyers. Wholesale lending = lender works behind the scenes. Wholesale lending

99 Mortgage Industry Trends In retail transactions, the lender handles the entire origination process. Wholesale lending

100 Mortgage Industry Trends In retail transactions, the lender handles the entire origination process. In wholesale transactions, the lender makes a loan either through a loan correspondent or through a mortgage broker. Wholesale lending

101 Wholesale Lending Loan correspondent A mortgage company, bank, or thrift that makes and services mortgage loans on behalf of a large investor (typically a wholesale lender). Wholesale originations

102 Wholesale Lending Loan correspondent A mortgage company, bank, or thrift that makes and services mortgage loans on behalf of a large investor (typically a wholesale lender). Also called a third party originator. Wholesale originations

103 Wholesale Lending Loan correspondent processes application and underwrites and funds loan.  Uses underwriting standards of wholesale lender, who has arranged to buy loan on specified terms. Wholesale originations

104 Wholesale Lending Mortgage broker finds and helps the customer through the loan application process.  Broker submits completed loan application to wholesale lender, who underwrites and funds loan. Wholesale originations

105 Wholesale Lending In the 1980s, large majority of mortgage originations was from retail lending. Today, wholesale originations are now 60% of mortgage originations. Growth of wholesale lending

106 Wholesale Lending “Warehouse lenders” are distinct from wholesale lenders. Warehouse lender = provides retail lender or correspondent with a line of credit to borrow money on short-term basis. Warehouse lenders

107 Mortgage Industry Trends Subprime lending involves making riskier loans. A credit = Prime or standard financing A- to B, C, D credit = Subprime financing Subprime lending

108 Mortgage Industry Trends Subprime lending may involve:  poor credit rating,  lack of documentation,  high debt ratio,  nonstandard property, or  large loan amount. Subprime lending

109 Mortgage Industry Trends Subprime lenders charge higher interest rates and higher loan fees in exchange for more flexible underwriting standards. Subprime rates and fees

110 Mortgage Industry Trends More likely to have features such as:  prepayment penalties,  balloon payments, and  negative amortization. Subprime rates and fees

111 Mortgage Industry Trends More likely to have features such as:  prepayment penalties,  balloon payments, and  negative amortization. Subprime lenders often engage in predatory lending practices. Subprime rates and fees

112 Mortgage Industry Trends Secondary market for subprime loans grew in 1990s. Subprime and secondary market

113 Mortgage Industry Trends Secondary market for subprime loans grew in 1990s. HUD encouraged Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to enter subprime market to meet affordable housing goals. Subprime and secondary market

114 Mortgage Industry Trends Secondary market for subprime loans grew in 1990s. HUD encouraged Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to enter subprime market to meet affordable housing goals.  GSEs only purchasing very top layer of market. Subprime and secondary market

115 Mortgage Industry Trends Subprime market boom ended in the late 1990s.  Default rate went up.  Subprime lenders went out of business. Subprime and secondary market

116 Mortgage Industry Trends Subprime market boom ended in the late 1990s.  Default rate went up.  Subprime lenders went out of business. Market continues to grow at steady rate today, but prime loans remain the standard. Subprime and secondary market

117 Summary Mortgage Industry Trends  Nationwide lending  Retail lending  Wholesale lending  Third party originator  Broker originations  Warehouse lenders  Subprime lending


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