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McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved Chapter Two The Impact of Government Policy and Regulation on Banking and the Financial-Services.

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Presentation on theme: "McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved Chapter Two The Impact of Government Policy and Regulation on Banking and the Financial-Services."— Presentation transcript:

1 McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved Chapter Two The Impact of Government Policy and Regulation on Banking and the Financial-Services Industry

2 2-2 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Reasons for the Regulation of Banks Protection of the Safety of the Public’s Savings Control of the Supply of Money and Credit Ensure Equal Opportunity and Fairness in Access to Credit Promote Public Confidence in the Financial System Avoid Concentration of Power Support of Government Activities Help for Special Segments of the Economy

3 2-3 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Principal Regulatory Agencies Federal Reserve System Comptroller of the Currency Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Department of Justice Securities and Exchange Commission State Banking Boards or Commissions

4 2-4 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Laws Limiting Bank Lending and Risk National Banking Act Federal Reserve Act Glass Steagall Act – Banking Act of 1933

5 2-5 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Laws Restricting Services Banks and Other Depository Institutions Can Offer National Banking Act Glass-Steagall Act – Banking Act of 1933 Competitive Equality in Banking Act FDIC Improvement Act

6 2-6 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Laws Expanding the Services Banks and Other Depository Institutions Can Offer Depository Institution Deregulation and Monetary Control Act (DIDMCA) Garn-St. Germain Act Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

7 2-7 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Laws Prohibiting Discrimination in Offering Services Equal Credit Opportunity Act Community Reinvestment Act

8 2-8 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Laws Mandating Increased Information to Consumers Consumer Credit Protection Act Competitive Equality in Banking Act Truth in Savings Act Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act Fair and Accurate Transaction Act

9 2-9 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Laws Requiring More Accurate Financial Reporting Sarbanes-Oxley Act

10 2-10 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Laws Regulating Branch Banking Glass-Steagall Act – Banking Act of 1933 Riegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act

11 2-11 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Laws Regulating Holding Company Activity Bank Holding Company Act Riegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

12 2-12 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Laws Regulating Bank Mergers Bank Merger Act Riegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act

13 2-13 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Laws Assisting Federal Agencies in Dealing with Failing Depository Institutions Garn-St. Germain Depository Institutions Act Competitive Equality in Banking Act Financial Institutions reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act FDIC Improvement Act Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Act

14 2-14 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Laws Requiring Sharing of Customer Information with the Government Bank Secrecy Act USA Patriot Act

15 2-15 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. National Banking Act (1863,1864) Passed During the Civil War to Help Fund the War Created A New Division of the Treasury, the Comptroller of the Currency Created National Banks with a Federal Charter

16 2-16 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Federal Reserve Act of 1913 Passed After a Series of Financial Panics at the Beginning of the Century Created the Federal Reserve System Gave the Fed the Authority to Act as the Lender of Last Resort Created to Provide a Number of Services to Member Banks Today the Fed Controls the Money Supply

17 2-17 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Glass-Steagall Act 1933 Passed During the Great Depression Separated Investment and Commercial Banking Created the FDIC Fed Given the Power to Set Margin Requirements Prohibited Interest to be Paid on Checking Accounts

18 2-18 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. FDIC Act 1935 Addressed the Issues Left Out of the Glass-Steagall Act Gave the FDIC the Power to Examine Banks and Take Necessary Action

19 2-19 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Social Responsibility Acts 1968 – Full Information on Terms of Loans Must be Given 1974 – Cannot Be Denied a Loan Based on Age, Sex, Race, National Origin or Religion 1977 – Cannot Discriminate Based on the Neighborhood in Which Borrower Resides 1987 and 1991 – Banks Must Disclose Full Terms on Deposit and Savings Accounts

20 2-20 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Depository Institution Deregulation and Monetary Control Act (DIDMCA) 1980 First of Deregulation Acts Phased Out Interest Rate Ceilings Allowed Interest to be Paid on Checking Accounts (NOW Accounts) Term Transaction Account Created – All Institutions with These Accounts Subject to Reserve Requirements

21 2-21 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Garn-St. Germain Act 1982 Continued the Deregulation of DIDMCA Created Money Market Deposit Account FDIC Could Arrange Mergers Across State Lines if Needed Loan Limits were Liberalized Banks in Need of Capital Could Get It From the FDIC

22 2-22 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Competitive Equality in Banking Act 1987 Allowed Creation of Special Bridge Banks for Failed Institutions Bridge Banks Are Special National Banks Operated by the FDIC Bridge Banks Created When Bank is Essential to the Community

23 2-23 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act (FIRREA) 1989 Created in Response to Large Number of Bank and S&L Failures Combined FDIC and FSLIC into the FDIC and Dismantled S&L Regulatory Body Created the RTC to Take on the Assets of Failed S&Ls $50 Billion Authorized to Handle Failed Institutions (Later Increased) Allowed Bank Holding Companies to Purchase Savings Banks

24 2-24 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. FDIC Improvement Act 1991 Move Towards Re-regulating the Industry Requires Regulators to Take Prompt Corrective Action When a Bank has Problems Prompt Corrective Action Based on the Capital Position of the Bank Requires Regulators to Develop New Standards for the Banks They Regulate

25 2-25 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Riegle-Neal Acts 1994 Bank Holding Company Can Acquire Banks Nationwide Consolidation of Interstate BHCs into Branches Smaller Well Managed Banks Only Examined Every 18 Months Community Development Fund Created to Promote Development of Depressed Local Communities

26 2-26 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act 1999 Permits Banking-Insurance-Securities Affiliations Consumer Protections for Consumers Purchasing Insurance Through a Bank Must Disclose Policies Regarding the Sharing of Customers’ Private Information Customers are Allowed to ‘Opt Out’ of Private Information Sharing Fees for ATM Use Must be Clearly Disclosed Federal Crime to Use Fraud or Deception to Steal Someone’s Account or Personal Information

27 2-27 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. The USA Patriot Act 2001 Requires Banks and Financial Service Providers to Establish the Identity of their Customers Requires Banks and Financial Service Providers to Check the Customer’s ID Against Government-Supplied Lists of Possible Terrorists and Terrorist Organizations Report Suspicious Activity in Customer’s Account to the US Treasury

28 2-28 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. The Sarbanes–Oxley Accounting Standards Act 2002 Creates Panel to Promote Accurate and Objective Audits of Public Companies Top Corporate Officers Must Vouch for the Accuracy of their Companies’ Financial Statements

29 2-29 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions (FACT) Act 2003 Passed in Response to Increased Problem of Identity Theft Federal Trade Commission Must Make it Easier for Consumers Victimized to File Theft Report Individuals and Families are Entitled to One Free Credit Report Each Year

30 2-30 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Check Reduces the Need for Banks to Transport Paper Checks Can Provide a Customer with ‘Substitute’ Check Which Contains Image of Front and Back of Original Check Allows for Electronic Transmission of ‘Substitute’ Checks for Clearing of Checks

31 2-31 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Act 2006 First Significant Increase FDIC Coverage in 25 years Raises FDIC Insurance Limits from $100,000 to $250,000 for Certain Retirement Deposits FDIC and NCUA are Empowered to Adjust Deposit Insurance Limits Every 5 years for Inflation Merges Bank Insurance Fund and Savings Association Insurance Funds

32 2-32 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Regulating Nonbank Financial- Service Credit Unions –National Credit Union Administration Savings Associations –Office of Thrift Supervision Money Market Funds –Securities and Exchange Commission Insurance Companies –State Insurance Commissions Finance Companies –State Governments Mutual Funds –Securities and Exchange Commission Securities Brokers and Dealers –Securities and Exchange Commission Financial Conglomerates –Functional Regulation

33 2-33 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Organizational Structure of the Federal Reserve System Board of Governors Federal Open Market Committee 12 Federal Reserve Banks Member Banks

34 2-34 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Bank Management and Financial Services, 7/e © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. European Central Bank Central Policy is to Maintain Price Stability Structure is Similar to the Federal Reserve Eleven Member Nations


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