Presentation on theme: "Is astrology a science?. Behaviorism Arose out of an attempt to make psychology a science. Focuses on what is observable and measurable -- namely,"— Presentation transcript:
Is astrology a science?
Behaviorism Arose out of an attempt to make psychology a science. Focuses on what is observable and measurable -- namely, behavior.
Why do they act like that? Test anxiety Pencil tap Overly competitive Class clown Use pencil sharpener Boys mean to girls they like (visaversa) Shy/withdrawn Acting tough Cough during silence Copy cat behavior/group think Teacher’s pet Talk without raising hand Dealing with CC Dealing with CC Dealing with OCDealing with OC
Go to same seat Cheating Excuse for leaving class Can’t leave other kids alone Class clown Sleeping Answer every question/talk a lot Refusal to participate Can’t stay still Trouble maker Doesn’t write down anything. Get up and down all the time. PDA
Bad behavior for student teacher Reactive student Passing notes Teacher’s pet Talker Shy Inappropriate behavior/PDA
Classical Conditioning A useful principle of learning for understanding how reflexive (i.e., automatic, unreflective) learning occurs. But not so useful for understanding intentional learning or complex learning.
Pavlov's Experiments (1)
Pavlov's Experiments (2)
Pavlov's Experiments (3)
UCSUCR Meat Salivate CSCR Bell Salivate Examples of CC in education?
Example of CC Bud Light Commercial Bud Light Commercial
Dealing with classically conditioned behaviors How could you understand test anxiety in terms of classical conditioning? Are there behaviors on our list that can be explained by classical conditioning?behaviors on our list How could you change the conditioning pattern?
Operant Conditioning A useful principle of learning for understanding observable, behavioral forms of learning. But not so useful for understanding such things a complex, mental processes.
Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning is basic common sense: If a behavior is reinforced (i.e., rewarded in some way), it is more likely to be repeated (its occurrence will increase). If a behavior is punished in some way, it is less likely to be repeated (its occurrence will decrease). The problem is, we always mess up by reinforcing behaviors we DON’T want and punishing behaviors we DO want.
Conditions needed for Operant Conditioning Individual must make a response. Reinforcer must follow the response. Reinforcer must be contingent on the response.
Types of Consequences
Operant Conditioning at Work!
Are there behaviors on our list that could be explained in terms of operant conditioning?behaviors on our list
Eliminating unwanted behavior Extinction Stop rewarding the behavior! Reinforce an incompatible behavior Ex. To eliminate speaking out of turn, reinforce hand raising.
Shaping Reinforce a series of behaviors that increasingly resemble the terminal (desired) behavior.
Applied Behavior Analysis Basic assumption of Applied Behavior Analysis: All deviant behavior is the result of environmental conditions - we are who are we are because we’ve been conditioned to be that way. With enough effort, we can identify the cause of the deviant behavior and change the environment so that the deviant behavior is eliminated.
Applied Behavior Analysis Identify current and target behaviors in observable, measurable form. Identify environmental causes for the problem. Develop and implement an intervention plan that: Changes the problematic setting events. Eliminates reinforcement of problem behavior. Shapes and reinforces appropriate behavior. Measure before, during, and after to monitor progress. Revise as necessary. Fade out the intervention.
Direct Instruction (DI)
What are the defining qualities of DI? How does it relate to the principles of CC and OC? What kind of learning does DI address? What is your opinion of DI?
Classical vs. Operant Cond. Classical ConditioningOperant Conditioning Stimulus precedes response. Involuntary Response precedes stimulus. Voluntary (sort of) Both can be taking place at the same time.
Critique of Behaviorism What are the strengths/weaknesses of this perspective? What happens when rewards stop? Is it problematic that other people and the environment are seen as the cause of behavior? Do humans operate according to natural laws in the same way that physical world operates according to natural laws (e.g., laws of physics)?