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1 Yrd. Doç. Alberta (Liesbeth) G.A. Paul Medical Terminology ???February 2015Yrd. Doç. Alberta (Liesbeth) G.A. Paul
2 Who I am: I am from The Netherlands (Holland) Biology graduate Ph.D. in ImmunologyWorked 7 years in the USA, Now 3 years in TurkeyResearcher specialized in autoimmune diseases and autoinflammatory diseases
3 What I expect from you: Open communication with me - evaluation /questionsInteractive and Proactive –questions/bring lecture material to the classLet us BOTH learn from these lectures ! –evaluation form will be designed
4 Main Objective: Introduction to Medical Terminology New students to Medical Terminology are often bewildered by strange spelling and pronunciation.Approximately 75% of Medical Terms are based on either Greek or Latin
5 Objectives of Lecture 1 and 2 : Apply basic principles of medical word building.Correctly pronounce medical terms.Define common medical terms.To Practise.. Practise..Practise
6 Basic Principles/Elements of Now, lets begin…….Basic Principles/Elements ofMedical Word Building
7 5 BASIC WORD PARTS - ELEMENTS Root wordSuffixPrefixesCombining form/Combining vowel
8 Forming Medical Terms Forming Medical Terms Medical Term Word root SuffixPrefixCombining forms
9 Forming Medical Terms Part 2 Medical terms are formed from two or more word parts.SuffixWord parts attached to the end of a word that modifies the meaning.PrefixWord parts attached to the beginning of a word that modifies the meaning.Word rootThe main part of a word which contains the basic meaning.Combining formsThe word root and a combining vowel that enable two parts to be connected.
10 1. Word Roots (WR) Frequently indicates a body part Most medical terms have one or more word roots
11 2. Word Root Main part or foundation of a word. All words have at least one word root.A word root may be used alone or combined with other elements to form a complete word.IE: SPEAK (word root) + ER (suffix) = SPEAKER (complete word)
13 By understanding the meanings of word roots, one can determine the meaning of complex medical terms by putting together the smaller parts.LeukocytopeniaWord Roots: Leuk / (white)cyt / (cell)Combining Vowel / o /Suffix: / penia (decrease)So what does it Mean ?
14 1. SuffixesWord EndingSuffix usually indicates a procedure, condition, disease, or denotes part of speech of the medical term (noun, verb, adjective)Adjective terminals (pertaining to) Noun Terminals-ic -y-al -ia-ical -um-ac is
15 All medical words have suffixes. A suffix is added to the END of a word root or combining form to modify its meaning.By adding a suffix to the end of a word root, we create a noun or adjective with a different meaning.All medical words have suffixes.Examples:-itis -ic-logy -lysis
16 3. Examples of SuffixesArthr/o -centesis Arthrocentesis joint puncture puncture of a jointthroac/o -tomy Thoracotomy chest incision incision of the chestgastr/o -megaly Gastromegaly stomach enlargement enlargement of the stomach
17 1. Combining vowels and forms A vowel that links two word parts togetherUsually an ‘o’Has no meaning of it’s ownCombining Form – root word plus a combining vowelExamples:Hemat/o –Cardi/o –Gastr/o –Oste/o –
18 2. Combining vowels and forms Correct pronunciation of medical words is important.In order to make the pronunciation of word roots easier, sometimes it is necessary to insert a vowel after the root.The combination of a word root and a vowel is known as a COMBINING FORM.
19 3. RULES FOR USING COMBINING VOWELS When the ending of the root word and the beginning of the suffix are both consonants, use a combining vowel.Example – hemat/o/logyWhen the ending of the root word is a consonant, and the beginning of the suffix is a vowel, do not use a combining vowel.Example – gastr/itis
20 3. RULES FOR USING COMBINING VOWELS 3. A combining vowel is always used when two root words are joined.Example – cardi/o/thorac/ic4. A prefix does not require a combiningvowelExample – epi/gastr/ic
21 4. Combining Forms Examples Cardi/ + o = cardi/o heartgastr/ + o = gastr/o stomachhepat/ + o = hepat/o livernephr/ + o = nephr/o kidneyoste/ + o = oste/o bone
22 PREFIXES Word beginning; Indicates size, quantity, position of, and location.Not all medical words have prefixes.Examples:Hyper- (excessive)Pre (before)Post (after)Homo- (same)Hypo (under)PrefixWord RootSuffix
23 TAKING TERMS APART - Systematic Determine a medical word’s meaning by looking at the component pieces.Start at the suffix (all medical terms will have one).Identify if there is a prefix (not all medical terms will have one).Locate the root words (there may be more than one).Identify the meaning of each word part as you separate them.
24 SPELLING In medicine, spelling is critical!!! One wrong letter could mean an entirely different place on the body or test to be performedExamples – ilium and ileum, PAC and PVC, etc…
25 “The patient was to have a cholecystectomy NOT a colectomy!!”What was really done with the patient?
26 Medical Dictionary Use Look Up Unfamiliar Terms
27 Medical Dictionary Use Look Up familiar TermsCARDIECTOMY(cardi=heart, ectomy=surgical removal of all or part of)Therefore, one might reasonably (but inaccurately) assume that cardiectomy means surgical removal of all or part of the heart. To quote one authoritative source, cardiectomy means "surgical removal of the upper end of the stomach.)NOTE: The meaning of this medical term was probably derived from the fact that the upper end of the stomach is the cardiac end or the end toward the heart. In any case, it clearly emphasizes the importance of referring to an authoritative medical dictionary rather than accepting the literal interpretation of a medical term.
28 Medical Terminology Mispronunciations - to pronounce incorrectly Artery - The study of fine paintings.Barium - What you do when CPR fails.Benign - What you are after you be eight.Coma - A punctuation mark.Morbid - A higher offer.Urine - opposite of you’re out.Tablet - A small table.
29 Bring examples of medical terms: Break them down into elements END OF LECTURE 1LECTURE 2:Bring examples of medical terms:Break them down into elements2. Name the elements3. Meaning of the word
31 Apply Your Knowledge Apply Your Knowledge Using various word parts, build terms for the following meanings.MeaningTermAbsence of bloodBluish color of hands and feetEqual vision in both eyes.Fast heart.Breakdown of sugar.anemiacyanosisisopiatachycardiaglycolysis
32 Apply Your Knowledge Part 2 Using various word parts, build terms for the following meanings.MeaningTermLack of white blood cells.Softening of bone.Inflammation of a vein.Nerve pain.Science of skin and its diseases.leukopeniaosteomalaciaphlebitisneuralgiadermatology
33 When a word has more than one root, a combining vowel is used to link the root to each other. IE: osteoarthritis oste/ o / arthr/ itis
34 This is to make pronunciation easier. Word root: scler / (hardening) A combining vowel is used between a word root and a suffix that begins with a consonant (not a vowel).This is to make pronunciation easier.Word root: scler / (hardening)Suffix: / derma (skin)Term: Scler / o / derma (hardening of the skin)Combining vowel
35 The suffixes-scope (instrument to view)-rrhexis (rupture)-rrhea (flow or discharge)all begin with a consonant, therefore a combining vowel must be used between the word root and the suffix.
36 The suffixes-algia (pain)-edema (swelling)-uria (urine, urination)These suffixes begin with a vowel, therefore a combining vowel is NOT used between the word root and the suffix.
37 Hypoinsulinemia Hypo / insulin / emia Notice that there is no combining vowel in this word because the prefix ends with a vowel and the suffix begins with a vowel.PrefixsuffixWord rootBLOODLOWINSULIN
38 Derivation of Medical Terminology The study of the origin of words is called etymology.Many medical terms used today are based on Ancient Greek and Latin.Word building became and remains the primary way to describe new medical discoveries.
39 Pluralizing Terms Pluralizing Terms Rules Add s to words ending in any vowel or consonant except s,x,z, or y (ex. joint- joints)Add es to words ending in s,x, or z (ex. reflex - reflexes)
40 Pluralizing Terms Rules Cont’d Remove x and add `ces to Latin words ending in x (ex. appendix - appendices)Remove the `y and add `ies to words ending in `y preceded by a consonant (ex. mastectomy- mastectomies)
41 Pluralizing Terms Rules Cont’d Remove `us and add `i to Latin words ending in us (ex. bacillus- bacilli)Change `sis to `ses in Greek words ending in sis (ex. psychosis - psychoses)
42 Prefixes (a–aut) Prefixes Prefix Meaning a ab ambi ana ante anti withoutaway fromboth, aroundup, towardbeforeagainstself
43 Prefixes (brachy–hypo) Meaningbrachybradycontradyshemihyperhyposhortslowagainstabnormal; difficulthalfabove normalbelow normal
44 Prefixes (inter–peri) MeaningPrefixinterisomalmetamicr(o)olig(o)peribetweenequal; samebad; inadequateaftersmallfew; little; scantyaround; about; near
45 Prefixes (pro–un) Prefixes Prefix Meaning pro re retro semi supra tachyunbefore; forwardagain; backwardbehind; backwardhalfabove; overfastnot