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Medical Terminology ??? February 2015 Yrd. Doç. Alberta (Liesbeth) G.A. Paul.

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Presentation on theme: "Medical Terminology ??? February 2015 Yrd. Doç. Alberta (Liesbeth) G.A. Paul."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Medical Terminology ??? February 2015 Yrd. Doç. Alberta (Liesbeth) G.A. Paul

3 I am from The Netherlands (Holland) Biology graduate Ph.D. in Immunology Worked 7 years in the USA, Now 3 years in Turkey Researcher specialized in autoimmune diseases and autoinflammatory diseases Who I am:

4 Open communication with me - evaluation /questions Interactive and Proactive – questions/bring lecture material to the class Let us BOTH learn from these lectures ! – evaluation form will be designed What I expect from you:

5 Main Objective: Introduction to Medical Terminology New students to Medical Terminology are often bewildered by strange spelling and pronunciation. Approximately 75% of Medical Terms are based on either Greek or Latin

6 Objectives of Lecture 1 and 2 : Apply basic principles of medical word building. Correctly pronounce medical terms. Define common medical terms. To Practise.. Practise..Practise

7 Now, lets begin……. Basic Principles/Elements of Medical Word Building

8 5 BASIC WORD PARTS - ELEMENTS Root word Suffix Prefixes Combining form/Combining vowel

9 Forming Medical Terms Medical Term Prefix Word root Suffix Combining forms

10 9 Forming Medical Terms Part 2 Medical terms are formed from two or more word parts. Word root The main part of a word which contains the basic meaning. Prefix Word parts attached to the beginning of a word that modifies the meaning. Suffix Word parts attached to the end of a word that modifies the meaning. Combining forms The word root and a combining vowel that enable two parts to be connected.

11 1. Word Roots (WR) Frequently indicates a body part Most medical terms have one or more word roots

12 2. Word Root Main part or foundation of a word. All words have at least one word root. A word root may be used alone or combined with other elements to form a complete word. IE: SPEAK (word root) + ER (suffix) = SPEAKER (complete word)

13 3. Examples of Word Roots

14 By understanding the meanings of word roots, one can determine the meaning of complex medical terms by putting together the smaller parts. Leukocytopenia Word Roots: Leuk / (white) cyt / (cell) Combining Vowel / o / Suffix: / penia (decrease) So what does it Mean ?

15 1. Suffixes Word Ending Suffix usually indicates a procedure, condition, disease, or denotes part of speech of the medical term (noun, verb, adjective) Adjective terminals (pertaining to) Noun Terminals -ic -y -al -ia -ical -um -ac -is

16 A suffix is added to the END of a word root or combining form to modify its meaning. By adding a suffix to the end of a word root, we create a noun or adjective with a different meaning. All medical words have suffixes. Examples: -itis-ic -logy-lysis 2. Suffixes

17 3. Examples of Suffixes Arthr/o-centesis Arthrocentesis joint puncture puncture of a joint throac/o -tomy Thoracotomy chest incision incision of the chest gastr/o -megaly Gastromegaly stomach enlargement enlargement of the stomach

18 1. 1. Combining vowels and forms Combining Vowel A vowel that links two word parts together Usually an ‘o’ Has no meaning of it’s own Combining Form – root word plus a combining vowel Examples: – Hemat/o – – Cardi/o – – Gastr/o – – Oste/o –

19 2. Combining vowels and forms Correct pronunciation of medical words is important. In order to make the pronunciation of word roots easier, sometimes it is necessary to insert a vowel after the root. The combination of a word root and a vowel is known as a COMBINING FORM.

20 3. RULES FOR USING COMBINING VOWELS 1.When the ending of the root word and the beginning of the suffix are both consonants, use a combining vowel. Example – hemat/o/logy 2.When the ending of the root word is a consonant, and the beginning of the suffix is a vowel, do not use a combining vowel. Example – gastr/itis

21 3. RULES FOR USING COMBINING VOWELS 3. A combining vowel is always used when two root words are joined. Example – cardi/o/thorac/ic 4. A prefix does not require a combining vowel Example – epi/gastr/ic

22 4. Combining Forms Examples Cardi/ + o = cardi/oheart gastr/ + o = gastr/ostomach hepat/ + o = hepat/oliver nephr/ + o = nephr/okidney oste/ + o = oste/obone

23 PREFIXES Word beginning; Indicates size, quantity, position of, and location. Not all medical words have prefixes. Examples: Hyper- (excessive) Pre- (before) Post- (after) Homo- (same) Hypo- (under) Prefix Word Root Suffix

24 TAKING TERMS APART - Systematic Determine a medical word’s meaning by looking at the component pieces. – Start at the suffix (all medical terms will have one). – Identify if there is a prefix (not all medical terms will have one). – Locate the root words (there may be more than one). – Identify the meaning of each word part as you separate them.

25 SPELLING In medicine, spelling is critical!!! One wrong letter could mean an entirely different place on the body or test to be performed Examples – ilium and ileum, PAC and PVC, etc…

26 “The patient was to have a cholecystectomy NOT a colectomy!!” What was really done with the patient?

27 Medical Dictionary Use Look Up Unfamiliar Terms

28 CARDIECTOMY (cardi=heart, ectomy=surgical removal of all or part of) Therefore, one might reasonably (but inaccurately) assume that cardiectomy means surgical removal of all or part of the heart. To quote one authoritative source, cardiectomy means "surgical removal of the upper end of the stomach.) NOTE: The meaning of this medical term was probably derived from the fact that the upper end of the stomach is the cardiac end or the end toward the heart. In any case, it clearly emphasizes the importance of referring to an authoritative medical dictionary rather than accepting the literal interpretation of a medical term. Medical Dictionary Use Look Up familiar Terms

29 Medical Terminology Mispronunciations - to pronounce incorrectly Artery - The study of fine paintings. Barium - What you do when CPR fails. Benign - What you are after you be eight. Coma - A punctuation mark. Morbid - A higher offer. Urine - opposite of you’re out. Tablet - A small table.

30 END OF LECTURE 1 LECTURE 2: Bring examples of medical terms: 1.Break them down into elements 2. Name the elements 3. Meaning of the word

31 Medical Terminology - Quiz

32 31 Apply Your Knowledge Using various word parts, build terms for the following meanings. MeaningTerm Absence of blood Bluish color of hands and feet Equal vision in both eyes. Fast heart. Breakdown of sugar. anemia cyanosis isopia tachycardia glycolysis

33 32 Apply Your Knowledge Part 2 Using various word parts, build terms for the following meanings. MeaningTerm Lack of white blood cells. Softening of bone. Inflammation of a vein. Nerve pain. Science of skin and its diseases. leukopenia osteomalacia phlebitis neuralgia dermatology

34 When a word has more than one root, a combining vowel is used to link the root to each other. IE: osteoarthritis oste/ o / arthr/ itis

35 A combining vowel is used between a word root and a suffix that begins with a consonant (not a vowel). This is to make pronunciation easier. Word root: scler / (hardening) Suffix: / derma (skin) Term: Scler / o / derma (hardening of the skin) Combining vowel

36 The suffixes -scope (instrument to view) -rrhexis (rupture) -rrhea (flow or discharge) all begin with a consonant, therefore a combining vowel must be used between the word root and the suffix.

37 The suffixes -algia (pain) -edema (swelling) -uria (urine, urination) These suffixes begin with a vowel, therefore a combining vowel is NOT used between the word root and the suffix.

38 Hypoinsulinemia Hypo / insulin / emia Prefix Word root suffix LOW INSULIN BLOOD Notice that there is no combining vowel in this word because the prefix ends with a vowel and the suffix begins with a vowel.

39 The study of the origin of words is called etymology. Many medical terms used today are based on Ancient Greek and Latin. Word building became and remains the primary way to describe new medical discoveries.

40 Rules Add s to words ending in any vowel or consonant except s,x,z, or y (ex. joint- joints) Add es to words ending in s,x, or z (ex. reflex - reflexes)

41 Rules Cont’d Remove x and add `ces to Latin words ending in x (ex. appendix - appendices) Remove the `y and add `ies to words ending in `y preceded by a consonant (ex. mastectomy- mastectomies)

42 Rules Cont’d Remove `us and add `i to Latin words ending in us (ex. bacillus- bacilli) Change `sis to `ses in Greek words ending in sis (ex. psychosis - psychoses)

43 42 Prefixes (a–aut) PrefixMeaning a ab ambi ana ante anti aut(0) without away from both, around up, toward before against self

44 43 Prefixes (brachy–hypo) Prefix Meaning brachy brady contra dys hemi hyper hypo short slow against abnormal; difficult half above normal below normal

45 44 Prefixes (inter–peri) Prefix Meaning inter iso mal meta micr(o) olig(o) peri between equal; same bad; inadequate after small few; little; scanty around; about; near

46 45 Prefixes (pro–un) PrefixMeaning pro re retro semi supra tachy un before; forward again; backward behind; backward half above; over fast not

47 46 Suffixes (ad–crine) SuffixMeaning -ad -algia -asthenia -blast -cidal -clast -crine toward pain breaking weakness immature; forming destroying; killing secreting

48 47 Suffixes (crit–ectomy) Suffix Meaning -crit -cyte -cytosis -derma -dynia -ectasis -ectomy separate cell condition of cells skin pain expanding; dilating removal of

49 48 Suffixes (emesis–graphy) SuffixMeaning -emesis -emia -esthesia -globin -gram -graph -graphy vomiting blood sensation protein a recording recording instrument process of recording

50 49 Suffixes (ic–malacia) Suffix Meaning -ic -ism -itis -kinesia -logist -lysis -malacia pertaining to condition; disease inflammation movement one who practices destruction of softening

51 50 Suffixes (mania-pathy) Suffix Meaning -mania -megaly -oid -opia -ostomy -para -pathy obsession enlargement like; resembling vision opening bearing disease

52 51 Suffixes (penia-phrenia) SuffixMeaning -penia -pepsia -pexy -phage -phobia -phonia -phrenia deficiency digestion fixation eating; devouring fear sound of the mind

53 52 Suffixes (phylaxis-rrhaphy) Suffix Meaning -phylaxis -plasty -plegia -pnea -ptosis -rrhagia -rrhaphy protection surgical repair paralysis breath falling down; drooping heavy discharge surgical suturing

54 53 Suffixes (rrhexis-tropia) SuffixMeaning -rrhexis -spasm -stasis -stenosis -tomy -trophy -tropia rupture contraction stopping; constant narrowing cutting operation nutrition turning


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