Presentation on theme: "Medical Terminology CORE RS 11. READ Basic Elements of a Medical Word 1. Word Root 2. Combining Form 3. Suffix 4. Prefix These four parts of a word are."— Presentation transcript:
Basic Elements of a Medical Word 1. Word Root 2. Combining Form 3. Suffix 4. Prefix These four parts of a word are known as ELEMENTS.
Word Root Main part or foundation of a word. All words have at least one word root. A word root may be used alone or combined with other elements to form a complete word. IE: SPEAK (word root) + ER (suffix) = SPEAKER (complete word)
The word root usually refers to a body part. Some root words are derived from the Latin or Greek language.
Word Root Examples “dent” means tooth “dermat” means skin “cardi” means heart “gastr” means stomach “pancreat” means pancreas
Combining Forms Correct pronunciation of medical words is important. In order to make the pronunciation of word roots easier, sometimes it is necessary to insert a vowel after the root. The combination of a word root and a vowel is known as a COMBINING FORM.
Combining forms consist of a combining vowel. The combining vowel is usually an “o”, but others may be used. IE: gastr / o pronounced GASTRO. Word root Combining vowel
When a word has more than one root, a combining vowel is used to link the root to each other. IE: osteoarthritis oste/ o / arthr/ itis Word root Combining vowel Word root suffix Slashes separate elements
Word-Building System By understanding the meanings of word roots, one can determine the meaning of complex medical terms by putting together the smaller parts.
Leukocytopenia Prefix: Leuk / (white) Word Root: cyt / (cell) Combining Vowel / o / Suffix: / penia (decrease)
Suffixes A suffix is added to the END of a word root or combining form to modify its meaning. By adding a suffix to the end of a word root, we create a noun or adjective with a different meaning.
A combining vowel is used between a word root and a suffix that begins with a consonant (not a vowel). This is to make pronunciation easier. scler / (hardening) Word root: derma (skin) Term: Scler / o / derma (hardening of the skin) Combining vowel
Meanings of certain suffixes -al pertaining to dent/al (pertaining to teeth) -er one who speak/er (one who speaks) -able capable of being playable (capable of being played)
-oma (tumor) hematoma (blood tumor) NOTE: The element that comes before a suffix can either be a word root or combining form.
The suffixes -scope (instrument to view) -rrhexis (rupture) -rrhea (flow or discharge) all begin with a consonant, therefore a combining vowel must be used between the word root and the suffix.
The suffixes -algia (pain) -edema (swelling) -uria (urine, urination) These suffixes begin with a vowel, therefore a combining vowel is NOT used between the word root and the suffix.
REVIEW A combining vowel IS used to link one root to another root, and before a suffix that begins with a consonant. A combining vowel IS NOT used before a suffix that begins with a vowel.
Prefixes A prefix is a syllable or syllables placed BEFORE a word or word root to alter its meaning or create a new word. Some prefixes: Hyper- (excessive) Pre- (before) Post- (after) Homo- (same) Hypo- (under)
Hypoinsulinemia Hypo / insulin / emia Prefix Word root suffix LOW INSULIN BLOOD Notice that there is no combining vowel in this word because the prefix ends with a vowel and the suffix begins with a vowel.
Plurality To make a medical word plural (more than one), first look at the suffix. Then, choose the rule that changes the singular form to the plural form.
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