Presentation on theme: "High Efficiency Amplifiers for EDGE Applications Based on Enhancement-Mode Junction PHEMT J.C. Clifton, L.Albasha Sony Semiconductor & Electronic Solutions."— Presentation transcript:
High Efficiency Amplifiers for EDGE Applications Based on Enhancement-Mode Junction PHEMT J.C. Clifton, L.Albasha Sony Semiconductor & Electronic Solutions M.Willer Sony CSBD 13 th September 2004
Technology: Sony J-PHEMT pn Junction Gate → High Vf → High Drain Current Sourcep-GateDrain GaAs Sub. InGaAs Channel JPHEMT Vf = 1.2 (V) Id Ig Schottky HEMT Vf = 0.7 (V) Ig Vg Id, Ig Id Vth JPHEMT Structure Higher forward voltage enables positive drive.
Objectives: Designing an EDGE PA EDGE functionality required from iteration of current GSM PA: Dualmode PA. Interface to a Direct Modulation Transceiver: to allow future inclusion of WCDMA for future single GSM/EDGE/WCDMA TX Architecture. Inclusion of EDGE functionality with only a small impact to the size and cost of the basic GSM solution. Meet EVM specifications over VSWR of 3:1 without isolator and avoid complex calibration/set-up. Target EDGE efficiencies 25%+ whilst maintaining current GSM performance of 55-60%.
Types of EDGE (8PSK) Power Amplifier GSM/EDGE PA Increased Vgg for linear operation Fixed Vdd=3.5V Operation Backed off Input Power, Pin Coupler for PACL Pout=28.5dBm Limiter S(t) PA Log Amplifier Limiter VCO Phase detector Sin(wt) Amplitude Modulator Limiter Log Amplifier S(t) PA Phase detector Sin(wt) Phase Modulator or VCO Linear/Backed-Off PA Approach J-PHEMT gives respectable efficiency at several dB back-off whilst maintaining EVM & ACPR Simple and robust architecture Also suited for WCDMA Sometimes issues meeting EVM spec under mismatch conditions: Isolator. Efficiency suffers under back-off PA Polar Loop Approach J-PHEMT gives good saturated efficiency Additional efficiency comes at the expense of much greater complexity Difficult to adopt for WCDMA and use with direct modulator transceiver Headline efficiency impacted by consumption within AM-AM and AM-PM feedback loops
Simulation Test Bench 3 Stage PA model based on Agilent Eesof model on ADS. System simulation tool ptolemy to allow inclusion of AM and PM correction loops. Simulation of ACPR, EVM, output power and efficiency. Used to simulate Linear/Back-off PA in addition to various different types of saturated PA.
Envelope Elimination and Restoration (EER) Power Amplifiers for EDGE Advantage: Drive Level and Power Control (eg drain regulation) similar to GMSK (constant Envelope) Issue: Method of Envelope insertion and correction Corrected Envelope inserted onto drain or gate supply Saturated PA Architectures
Control Characteristics (1mm, 900MHz) 20mm E-pHEMT Pin=15dBm Gate Bias V EVM % Gate Drain
EER Based on Drain Voltage RF Output Signal make to track EDGE Envelope by AM Correction Loop Loop Dynamics optimised to minimise Error Voltage whilst ensuring loop stability over range of control and supply voltages Corrected Drain Voltage (max=3.5V) Associated Drain Current DRAIN VOLTAGE/CURRENT CHARACTERISTICS PAE: 40-45% using fast DC-DC converter Corrected RF Output Signal
Phase Distortions 60° Phase variation over envelope EVM> 11%. AM-PM Correction loop required to reduce EVM to 1.5% and bring ACPR inside specification: Limiter PA Log Amplifier VCO Sin(wt) Amplitude Modulator Limiter Log Amplifier PA Phase Modulator or VCO S(t) Limiter –Phase detector
EER Based on Gate Voltage 20 Degrees Phase error significantly reduced. Resulting EVM of 3.2%. Further reduced with the addition of simple pre-distortion circuit. Simulated PAE of 44%.
Adaptive Bias Control Based on Gate Voltage PA operated in saturated mode. Gate tracking circuit designed to exhibit constant gain over input envelope. Simulated efficiency of 50%. Resulting phase variation of <10° over envelope and EVM of 1%. Phase error due to compression is partly offset by impact of phase variation caused by gate bias shifts required to keep gain constant
Practical Measurements of Gate Correction Circuit with Class A/B PA out of Compression Implementation Issues for PA in compression: AM Correction loop design –extreme sensitivity of gate voltage to EVM and ACPR dBc, 400KHz offset -54.3dBc, 400KHz offset Gate AM correction circuit reduced EVM from 16% down to 3%.
Linear PA Investigations Required improvements for product: Elimination of output isolator: meet EVM spec in 3:1 Antenna VSWR Elimination of output coupler/detector and control feedback loops: Open Loop Control Avoidance of 30-40dB VGA/VVA which impacts power consumption, size and RX Noise performance (TX SAW not acceptable) Improve efficiency compared to conventional EDGE Linear Power Amps
Objectives Met with Modified Linear PA Modifications compared to conventional Linear PA to Improve Efficiency at back-off and simplify power control scheme
Modified Linear PA: Measured Performance Gate Supply= V1 for GSM V2 for EDGE (V2>V1) Vd supply=Vbattery DualMode PA GMSK: Compressed EDGE: Linear Input Step Attenuation: EDGE HI, GMSK LO GMSK O/P Matched RFin Vramp (GSM & EDGE) RFout 34.5dBm GMSK 28.5dBm EDGE (excluding VGA consumption required for conventional PA)
Measured Pout/Temperature Characteristics Modified Linear PA
Open-Loop Operation and Mismatch: Measurements Temperature stable, variable gain PA Power Error Budget Frequency Variation < +/-1.0dB Temperature Variation < +/-1.0dB WORST CASE <+/-2.0dB SPEC(E2)+/-4.0dB Without isolator RX Noise: offset from carrier (-10dBm input power, 28.3dBm Output)
Conclusions Promising simulation results for JPHEMT PA in both Saturated (Polar Loop/EER) and Linear modes, proving capabilities of the device. Adaptive Bias Control of Compressed PA based on gate envelope tracking looks promising from viewpoint of reduced complexity and performance. However, significant implementation issues exist. Approach based upon modified linear PA proved best suited to meeting original objectives. EDGE RF functionality possible with very small size/cost impact to GSM solution. Forward compatibility with WCDMA.
Acknowledgements Colleagues at Atsugi Technology Centre: H. Kawasaki, H. Kawamura and H. Motoyama Support from Thomas LeToux, project student from ULP France/UCL UK. Agilent ADS UK team for simulation support.