Presentation on theme: "MIDDLE AMERICA II (CHAPTER 4: 196-221). Natural Resources."— Presentation transcript:
MIDDLE AMERICA II (CHAPTER 4: )
MAQUILADORAS Tijuana Nogales Ciudad Juarez Matamoros Reynosa Monterrey Chihuahua
GDP PER CAPITA ALONG THE US-MEXICAN BORDER
Initiated in the 1960s as coupon houses Assembly plants that pioneered the migration of industries in the 1970s Today –>4,000 maquiladoras –>1.2 million employees MAQUILADORAS
Modern industrial plants Assemble imported, duty-free components/raw materials Export the finished products Mostly foreign-owned (U.S., Japan) 80% of goods reexported to U.S. Tariffs limited to value added during assembly MAQUILADORAS
Maquiladora products MAQUILADORAS Electronic equipment Electric appliances Auto parts Clothing Furniture
ADVANTAGES –Mexico gains jobs. –Foreign owners benefit from cheaper labor costs. EFFECTS –Regional development –Development of an international growth corridor between Monterrey and Dallas - Fort Worth MAQUILADORAS
NAFTA Effective 1 January 1994 Established a trade agreement between Mexico, Canada and the US, which: –Reduced and regulated trade tariffs, barriers, and quotas between members –Standardized finance & service exchanges
NAFTA How has Mexico benefited from NAFTA?
MEXICO AND NAFTA Foremost, it promises a higher standard of living. NAFTA creates more jobs for Mexicans as US companies begin to invest more heavily in the Mexican market. Mexican exporters increase their sales to the US and Canada. Is that the entire story?
U.S. TRADE WITH CANADA & MEXICO Canada remains as the United States’ largest export market. Since 1977, Mexico has moved into second place (displacing Japan). 85% of all Mexican exports now go to the United States. 75% of Mexico’s imports originate in the United States.
ALTITUDINAL ZONATION Middle & South America’s Vertical Climate Zones
ALTITUDINAL ZONATION Sea Level Sea Level 2500’ 750 m TIERRA CALIENTE (Hot Land) Bananas, Cocoa, Sugar, Rice Middle & South America’s Vertical Climate Zones
6,000’ 1800 m ALTITUDINAL ZONATION Sea Level 2000’ 600 m Sea Level TIERRA TEMPLADA (Temperate Land) Coffee, Rice, Corn, Sugar
ALTITUDINAL ZONATION Sea Level 6,000’ 2000’ 2,000 m 600 m Sea Level 12,000’ 3,600 m TIERRA FRIA (Cold Land) Corn, Wheat, Potato
12,000’ 3,600 m ALTITUDINAL ZONATION Sea Level 6,000’ 2000’ 2,000 m 600 m Sea Level TIERRA HELADA (Frost Land) Middle & South America’s Vertical Climate Zones
THE REPUBLICS Guatemala Belize Honduras El Salvador Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama
ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS Tropical Deforestation 3 million acres of woodland in Central America disappear each year! What are the causes of tropical deforestation? What are the alternatives?
CAUSES OF TROPICAL DEFORESTATION Clearing of rural lands to accommodate meat production and export Rapid logging of tropical woodlands to meet global demands for new housing, paper, and furniture Population explosion: forests are cut to provide crop-raising space and firewood What is the solution?
THE CARIBBEAN BASIN
THE CARIBBEAN BASIN The Greater Antilles –Cuba –Hispaniola –Jamaica –Puerto Rico The Lesser Antilles
TOURISM: A MIXED BLESSING? Advantages –State and regional economic options –A clean industry –Educational Disadvantages –Disjunctive development –Degrades fragile environmental resources –Inauthentic representations of native cultures