2Small semimajor axes Large eccentricities Standard model of planet formation based on Solar system exploration
3Recent Plugins The standard model Protostar +Disk Planetesimal formation bydust coagulation or G-instabilityRecent PluginsFormation of Terrestrial planets and core of giant planets (subsequent gas infall) by planetesimal accumulationPlanet migrationP-P scatteringGas dissipation – final planetary systemP-P scatteringResidual planetesimal scatteringTidal interaction with the star
4Planetary migration: a very complex problem Turbulence (MRI?): stochastic migrationKley & Crida (2008)Small planets (1- 50 ME): Type I migrationIsothermal, adiabatic, or fully radiative energy equation2D-3DHS dragMasset & Papaloizou (2003)Saturn-Jupiter size planets: Type II, III migrationNumerical simulations: resolution close to the planet (CPD handling) and at resonances
6The inner wake exerts a positive torque on the planet accelerating it and causing an outward migrationThe outer wake exerts a negative torque slowing down the planet and leading to inward migrationThe sum of the two torques, the differential Lindblad torque, is negative and causes inward migration.
7What is the origin of the wakes? QUESTIONS:What is the origin of the wakes?Can we compute the differential Lindblad torque?Wakes (2 arms) are given by superposition of sound waves, excited at Lindblad resonances, in a differentially rotating disk.Lindblad resonances are located in the fluid where
8Lindblad resonances in the 'galactic' language.... Fourier decomposition of the planet potentialWe search in the disk the radius where the epicyclic frequency is equal to m-times the difference between the orbital frequency of the planet and the keplerian frequency at the disk location...but
10Adding up all the torques at the Lindblad resonances (analitically with the linear approximation or numerically) it is possible to give an expression for the total torque on the planet.Where a is the exponend of the density power law and b that of the temperature profile
11Eample of how the torque depends on the disk parameters
12Type I migration too fast Type I migration too fast! Planetary embryos would fall onto the star before accreting the gas and become gas giants. For this reason Alibert et al. (2004,2005) assumed that the migration speed was a factor 30 lower than that computed. In this way they were able to reproduce with their model of planet formation+migration the observed distribution in mass and orbital elements of exoplanets.Models of Jupiter formation with migration. Timescales of a few Myr compatible with the lifetime of the disk.
13The inner and outer disc are responsible for the Lindblad torque. Horseshoe torqueThe inner and outer discare responsible for theLindblad torque.In the horseshoe region,gas particles make U-turns → exchange ofangular momentum withthe planet→ Corotation torque.
15Exchange of angular momentum at the horseshoe region which depends on the temperature and density profile and the viscosity.
16Gas enters from above and escapes below since the lines are not symmetric.
17Type I migration can be reversed for radiative disks (Kley & Crida (2008) due to the horseshoe torque.Up to 40 Earth masses the torque is positive. This is important for Jupiter size planets where the core is about ME Before gas infall they migrate outwards and after the gas infall (very rapid, 1 kyr) they undergo type II migration potentially skipping the critical fast inward migration phase.
18Nelson (2005). Large scale turbulence can cause a stochastic migration of planets overcoming the Lindblad torques.
23What about Jupiter and Saturn What about Jupiter and Saturn? Why didn't they migrate very close to the sun? Coupled migration while trapped in resonance!
24Masset & Snellgrove (2001): Jupiter and Saturn trapped in a 3:2 resonance migrates outwards. Jupiter excites inner Lindblad resonances, Saturn the outer ones. A positive torque is obtained
25The grand tack scenario (Walsh et al. 2011) 1st step: Inward migration of Jupiter & Saturn during their growth ; Jupiter gets to 1.5 AU2nd step: 3:2 resonance capture and common gap formation3rd step: outward migration to their present orbitsImplications: It can explain radial mixing of asteroids and small size of Mars
26Estimate the disk density when Jupiter and Saturn reverse migration Question: can Jupiter (and Saturn) migrates all the way back from 1.5 to 5.2 AU in an evolved nebula?Estimate the disk density when Jupiter and Saturn reverse migrationDerive the outward migration speed of the two planets locked in resonance
27Reference quantities are computed from a 3D simulation with Semiempirical formula of coupled migration scaled for different disk parametersReference quantities are computed from a 3D simulation withMore than 50% of disk models have approximately these parameters after 1 Myr (D'Angelo & Marzari 2012).
28Very low probability of reaching their present position with outward coupled migration in the 3:2 for different values of disk parameters.… means no evolution
29As if the situation were not bad enough with the 3:2, now the 2:1 !!In a low density nebula, the capture in a 2:1 resonance occurs prior encountering the 3:2.The 2:1 resonance DOES NOT lead to outward migration because of the reduced gap overlapping
30Analytical criterion (Mustill & Wyatt, 2011) For the 2:1 Assuming that the migration speed of Saturn is type I, then%SIGMA <=
31Type I migration (reduced by a factor 10-100) From planetesimals to planets: giant planetsGiant impact phase much shorter due to planet migration. It prevents dynamical isolation and move the planets around filling up their feeding zone. Problems? It may be too fast and push the planet onto the star.Alibert et al. (2005) semianalytical model* Upper line: mass accreted from planetesimals* Bottom line from gas* Continuous line: started at 8 AU,* Dotted: at 15 AU (all end up at 5 AU).* Dashed line: in situ model (no migration)Type I migration (reduced by a factor )Type II migration (when gap is opened)
33How do planets achieve large e and small q? 1) Planet-Planet scattering: at the end of the chaotic phase a planet is ejected, one is injected on a highly eccentric orbit that will be tidally circularized to the pericenter, one is sent on an outer orbit2)3)1)Weidenschilling & Marzari (1996), Rasio and Ford (1996), version with 2 planets
36Eccentricity and inclination excitation Eccentricity and inclination excitation. Outcome of many simulations with 3 initial planets within the instability limit by Chatterjee et al. (2008).
37Example of 'Jumping Jupiters'. The density of the disk is MMSN/2 Example of 'Jumping Jupiters'. The density of the disk is MMSN/2. Code used is FARGO (RK5 modified to have variable stepsize). One planet (1 MJ) merges with another one (0.7 MJ) after a sequence of close encounters.Eccentricity evolution after P-P scattering: damping or excitation because of corotation resonance saturation?
38Tidal migration of eccentric orbits Maximum e declines with distance from the star: tidal circularization. Energy is dissipated but the angular momentum J is preserved.
39Kozai mechanism; invoked for the first time to explain the large eccentricity of the planet in the binary system 16 Cyn B.
40One of the planets (HD80606b) has a highly eccentric (e = 0 One of the planets (HD80606b) has a highly eccentric (e = 0.93) and tight (a = 0.46 AU) orbit. The presence of a stellar companion of the host star can cause Kozai oscillations in the planet's eccentricity. Combined with tidal dissipation, this can move the planet inward well after it has formed. Such a migration mechanism can account for the orbit of HD80606b, but only if the initial planet orbit was highly inclined relative to the binary orbit.
41Single steps of accretion well studied: it is the temporal evolution with the simultaneous mass accretion that is still difficult1 ME1 ME●Type I migration or stochastic random walk●P-P scattering●Mutual impacts and accretion1 ME1 ME1 ME●Type II, Type III migration● Eccentricity excitation (corotation resonance saturation...)●P-P scattering●Resonance capture●Residual planetesimal scattering●Gas accretion onto the planet1 MJ1 MJ1 MJ
42Superficial density at the planet location D'Angelo & Lubow (2008) first attempt to include planet growth in a hydrodynamical simulation.300 g/cm2100 g/cm23 MESuperficial density at the planet location
43Finding planets inclined respect to the star equator (WASP-14, Johnson et al, 2009) is a strong indication that happened AFTER. Why? Jumping Jupiters can lead to inclined planetary orbits butMarzari and Nelson (2009)......the interaction with the gaseous disk drives the planet quickly back within the disk (103 yrs).
44There are many weird planets out there, and theory must explain them all!