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Origin & Evolution of Habitable Planets: Astronomical Prospective D.N.C. Lin University of California, Santa Cruz, KIAA, Peking University, with Pathways.

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Presentation on theme: "Origin & Evolution of Habitable Planets: Astronomical Prospective D.N.C. Lin University of California, Santa Cruz, KIAA, Peking University, with Pathways."— Presentation transcript:

1 Origin & Evolution of Habitable Planets: Astronomical Prospective D.N.C. Lin University of California, Santa Cruz, KIAA, Peking University, with Pathways towards Habitable Planets Barcelona, Spain September 14th, 2009 S. Ida, J.L. Zhou, K. Kretke, C. Baruteau, S.L. Li, K. Schlaufman, H. Yi, J. Yan, C. Agnor, R. Laine 17 slides

2 Key Questions Are we alone? (In search of island planets) Are we special? (Similarities & diversities) How did we get here? (Origins & Evolution) Where is ET ? (Environment & biosignatures) Theorey of biology (From anthropic principle towards a set of deterministic laws). 2/17

3 Milestones Conceptual nebula hypothesis First observational discoveries Characterization & calibration Constraints of theoretical models Strategies for future searches 3/17

4 Why study gas giants first? Easy to detect: Stimulus of different search methods Highlight theoretical challenges: rapid formation, limited retention, & diverse evolution Missing link to rocky planets: cores and composition Environmental perturbers: shakers and movers of dynamical architectures Signposts of habitats? rocky-planet oasis or desert 4/17

5 Ubiquity of gas giants Protostellar disks transits Radial velocity Solar system exploration meteoritic microlensing Planetary systems 5/17 AO

6 cvcv Ground based limitations orbital radius [AU] Planet mass [M ] Earth Venus Mercury Mars Saturn UranusNeptune Jupiter directimaging young stars, AB 6/17

7 gas giants planetesimals ©Newton Press cores protoplanetary disk: H/He gas (99wt%) + dust grains (1wt%) core accretion gas envelope contraction runaway gas accretion >100M > M coagulation of planetesimals terrestrial planets gas accretion onto cores type I migration type II migration Population synthesis model Ida & Lin (2004a,b,2005,2008a,b), a ini =(integration on 10 9 y) M p, a final 7/17

8 Migration & retention 8/17

9 Calibration of theoretical models Snow line accumulation of dust and embryos 9/17

10 Hot Jupiters & Super Earths 10/17 Tidal & magnetic interaction:Inflation and mass losses Stellar spin Scattering & Kozai effect

11 Secular & resonant interaction in multiple systems Formation time/space separation. Preservation of resonances 11/17 Formation after 60 Myr Formation on Myr Relativistic detuning in Arae

12 If more than 3 giant planets form on circular orbits Orbit crossing starts on t cross One is ejected. The others remain in stable eccentric orbits. inner one: radial velocity outer one: direct imaging t cross Origin of eccentric planets: jumping jupiter Weidenschilling & Marzari (1996), Lin & Ida(1997),Zhou et al (2007) Solar system: 2 giants stable t cross [yr] Δ a [r H ] 12/17

13 Orbital radius [AU] Planet mass [] Planet mass [ M ] RV obs. limit Gas giants Pushing the discovery frontiers (RV) Pushing the discovery frontiers (RV) Close-in super-Earths: Close-in super-Earths: ~30 % of FGK dwarfs close-in gas giants (hot jupiters): ~ a few % gas giants: ~10 % Super-Earths 14/17

14 Super-Earths without gas giants 13/17 Failed cores (mostly ices) vs In situ mergers (mostly rocks) What will Kepler see?

15 Exciting prospects orbital radius [AU] Planet mass [M ] Venus Earth Mars Mercury Saturn UranusNeptune Jupiter Transit from space Corot, Kepler TESS (2013?) /17

16 Summary extrasolar gas giants extrasolar gas giants Observational characterization: Observational characterization: Diversity: migration & dynamical instability Diversity: migration & dynamical instability Stellar mass/metallicity dependence Stellar mass/metallicity dependence Theory: disk mass & migration play key roles Theory: disk mass & migration play key roles next challenges (both observation and theory) next challenges (both observation and theory) gas giants gas giants Dynamical structure in multiple systems Dynamical structure in multiple systems Diversity: atmosphere, structure, & composition Diversity: atmosphere, structure, & composition super-Earths super-Earths Close-in super-Earths are abundant Close-in super-Earths are abundant Habitable planets around M dwarfs Habitable planets around M dwarfs Long-term stability of planetary systems Long-term stability of planetary systems 16/17

17 Future prospects 3/6 17/17


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