Security Definition of Security: –Subjective: relative security –Absolute minimal need: shelter, food, safety –Symbolic: identity –Future needs –Intangibles –Individual vs. the Polis –How do we express the need for security?
Threats to Security Psychological/Emotional/Moral injury Poverty Material Goods: Energy, Food Crime –Property –Personal Violence War (civil war, terrorism) How does government provide Security?
War on Terrorism Definition of Terrorism: terrorism is “premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups…usually intended to influence an audience (U.S. Department of State).
Terrorism is rooted in an “intellectual” tradition that is at least 120 years old (David Rapoport, UCLA) The strategy was first proposed by late-19th- century Russian anarchists in response to public apathy, after older revolutionary efforts, including pamphlets and meetings, had failed to awaken the masses.
Strategies of Terrorists Provoke the government to break its own rules (on violence) and polarize society. The apathetic masses would discover that moderation and fence-sitting were impossible. Command the masses’ attention, arouse latent political tensions and provoke government to respond indiscriminately, undermining in the process its own credibility and legitimacy. call forth “mass slaughter” by the regime
Rationality of Terrorism Deterrence Theory Can terrorism be deterred? Is terrorism rational? What do we mean by rational? If terrorism is rational, does it mean it can be deterred?
Rationality of Violence Violence – strategic purpose: it will eliminate the middle ground. Violence by the oppressed will call forth “mass slaughter” by the regime. And then, even “the most estranged members of the colonized race” will realize that the options of going on with life, seeking nonviolent change or mouthing Western values are no longer open to them. – Frantz Fanon, 1961
Terrorism is for the weak Osama Bin Laden’s attack on America cam when Islamic radicalism was at “a political impasse.” Afghan-trained rebels had failed in Algeria, Egypt and Bosnia during the 1990s. The attacks on America was a bid to revive mass support “through a cycle of provocation, repression, and solidarity.” (Rapaport 2003).
But terrorism seems to work? –American and French military abandoned Lebanon in 1983, –Israeli forces leave Lebanon in 1985, –Israeli forces quit the Gaza Strip and the West Bank in 1994 and 1995 –The Sri Lankan government forced to allow an independent Tamil state in 1990 –The Turkish government granted autonomy to the Kurds in the late 1990s
State Strategies Negotiation Repression Deter and Contain: –Soviet Union –China –Gulf War Tit for Tat (repeated games)
Security/Efficiency Tradeoff Police State – costly (resources) Welfare State – undermine incentives to work Economic Regulation – undermine productivity
Liberty Different definitions of liberty –Negative: Absence of interference –Positive: Ability to choose Educated people are more free Prevent people from interfering When is government infringement of Liberty justified? –John Stuart Mills – harm to others Physical harm, economic harm
Security/Liberty Tradeoff How do we express our need/demand for security and/or liberty? Election, consumption, pluralism? What do we lose? Seatbelt laws, surveillance, privacy What about….Suspension of Habeas Corpus; Espionage Act; Smith Act?