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111. tknOlOjI dy mhwn kdm, ishq qy dvweIAW 111.1. drd qy soijS dw ielwz Mo mOrPIn U1800 c drd htwaux leI APIm qoN mOrPIn bxweI geI[ 1920 c hMgrI dy hkIm.

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Presentation on theme: "111. tknOlOjI dy mhwn kdm, ishq qy dvweIAW 111.1. drd qy soijS dw ielwz Mo mOrPIn U1800 c drd htwaux leI APIm qoN mOrPIn bxweI geI[ 1920 c hMgrI dy hkIm."— Presentation transcript:

1 111. tknOlOjI dy mhwn kdm, ishq qy dvweIAW drd qy soijS dw ielwz Mo mOrPIn U1800 c drd htwaux leI APIm qoN mOrPIn bxweI geI[ 1920 c hMgrI dy hkIm jons kwby ny mOrPIn KsKs dI fofI qoN ielwvw KsKs dy suky buty coN inkwl idqI[ 1923 c ies dI rswiexk bxqr qy Aml l~gx qy swh rokx krky mOrPIn bxwx dy hor qrIky l`By gey[ 1961 c nYlorPIn nYlozon nvIAW dvweIAW bxweIAW geIAW] AYsprIn 1890 c sYlIislk AYisf joVW qy hor drd leI ssqI dvweI sI, jrmnI dI byAr kMpnI dy PIilks hOPmYn ny AYsprIn iqAwr kIqI qy hkIm hInirc frYsr ny tYst kIqI[pr ies nwl idl k~cw qy pyt drd BI ho skdw sI[ 1899 ies dIAW golIAW bx ky 1900 c ivkx lgIAW[ AYsrIn ivc sYlIislk AYisf vwly nuks nhI sn[ A~j BI EhI hY[ 1980 q~k AYsprIn Awm isr drd leI vrqI geI, iPr ies dw idl dw AtYk rokx dw gux pqw l~igAw] kOortIzon 1940 AYfrInl kOrtYks hwrmon (stIroAwief) c sojS htwx dy gux l~By[ 1948 c AmrIkn luies hysitMg swrYt ny kOrtIzon bxw leI[ Agly swl ieh joVW dy drd htwx leI imlx l~gI[ iPr ies dy AOgx pqw l~gy, pr ieh dmy qy Al~rjI leI vrqI jwdI hY[ hux prYfnIzon, prYfnIsolon qy dYkswmYTwzon hn ijnW dy AOgx G~t hn qy soijS leI vrqy jWdy hn] AYsIitl-sYlIislk AYisf hMgrI dy hkIm jons kwby luies hysitMg swrYt joVW dy drd dy kz

2 111. tknOlOjI dy mhwn kdm, ishq qy dvweIAW idmwgI nuks leI dvweIAW klorprOmwzIn 1954 c klorprOmwzIn (QorwzIn, ihbrnl) idmwgI ASwqI lI vrqI geI, ieh pihlW Al~rjI leI sI[ ieh idmwgI nuksW dy ielwj dw SurU sI[ pihlW ibjlI lwauxI, iensUlIn Swk, idmwg dy AprySn dI QW klorprOmwzIn ny ky hspwl c rYhx dI loV GtweI[ jwxkwrI imlx nwl ikvyN klorprOmwzIn Asr krdI hY, nvIAW dvweIAW hYlopYrIfol qy ElwnzwpIn bxIAW] trweIsweIkilk AYntIifprYsYnts 1958 c idmwgI nuks leI dvweI iemIprwmIn c ASwqI rok gux imly[ ieh idmwgI isgnlW qy Asr krdI hY[ ies iksm dIAW dvweIAW trweIsweIkilk AYntIifprYsYnts idmwgI nuks qy ASwqI dy ielwj leI Awm vrqoN c hn] bYnzufwieAwXYpInz 1959 c bYnzufwieAwXYpInz ASwqI leI nvI dvweI klorfwieAwXypoXweIf (ilbrIAm) bxI[ ies qoN bxIAW dvweIAW ny 1950 c bxIAW bwribcueyts qy mYprobwmyt dI vrqoN htw idqI[ ieh dvweIAW ihpnOitk eyjYnts, msl rlYksYts qy imrgI leI BI vrqIAW jwdIAW hn] idmwgI ASwqI b~cw hon bwd iPlm v~n PlU Evr kUkUz nYst (1975) idmwgI ibmwrI dy bury Asr idKwey gey idmwg c inaUrotrwnsimtrz

3 111. tknOlOjI dy mhwn kdm, ishq qy dvweIAW hwrmon qy hwrmon rYgulytrz iensUiln iensUiln pYkirAwz c bxdI hY qy KUn c SUgr siQr r~KdI hY[ iensUimn dI Gwt kwrn pihlI iksm dI SUgr ho jwdI hY jo 1920 q~k jwn lyvw sI[ 1921 c kYnyfw dy PrYfirk bYnitg qy cwrlz bYst ny gaU pYnkirAwz coN iensUiln inkwlI[ ies nwl 14 swl dy b~cy dI jwn bcweI[ 1922 c eI AweI illI kMpnI ny pSU pYnkirAwz qoN iensUlIn bxw ky vycI[ 1982 c rIkMmbInYt fI Ayn eY nwl iensUiln bxweI geI] tYstostIron tYstostIron nwl ilg qy mrd icMn bxdy hn[ ieh klYstrOl ijhw stIrOf hwrmon hY[ 1935 c klYstrOl qoN tYstostIron bixAW ijs nwl hwrmon Gwt dUr hudI hY[ tYstostIron rswiexk qy Kws iktwxUAW qoN bxdI hY] projYsitnz, AYstroijnz qy Erl kntrwsYpitvz 1930 c do jnwnw hwrmon grBvqI GoVI dy ipSwb qy mYksIkn svIt rUt qoN inkwly gey[ projYsitnz (projYstron, lutIAl hwrmon) grB brkrwr qy AYstroijnz mYniss brkrwr r~Kx leI swbq hoey[ 1950 c ieh hwrmon bxwey gey qy prYgnYnsI qy knsYpSn leI dyKy gey[ ienW nwl jnwnw grB rok golIAW bxIAW[ 1960 c eInoivf (AYstroijnz + progYsitnz) AmrIkw c kwmXwb grB rok swbq hoeI] pyt-AMqVIAW dI dvweIAW Alsr dy ielwj 1972 c skwitS hkIm jymz blYk qy swQIAW ny simQ klweIn qy PrYnc kMpnI c pyt c izAwdw Ktws dI ividAW dI jwnkwrI idqI[ ies ivigAwn nUM “rYSnl frug idzweIn” ikhw jWdw hY[ 1976 c sImYtwfIn (tYgwmYt) jo pyt dI iKtws rokdI qy pyt dy Alsr rokdI hY, ieh dvweI dI Awm vrqoN ny pyt srjrI dI loV Gtw idqI] PrYfirk bYnitg qy cwrlz bYst

4 111. tknOlOjI dy mhwn kdm, ishq qy dvweIAW fwktrI tYst qy ibmwrI jWc fwktrI iemyijMg ivigAwn AYksry qy AYm Awr AweI (mYgnYitk rYzonYs iemyijMg) skYnr krWqIkwrI mSInw A~j Awm fwktrI jWc qy ielwj leI vrqy jWdy hn[ 1895 c ivlhYlm kOnrYf roentjn qy Ayksry dI Koj kIqI qy ApxI pqnI dy h~Q dw prCWvw idKwieAw[ 1900 c hr hspqwl c AYksry mSIn sI[ 1970 c AYm Awr AweI rswiexk bxqr jWc leI vrqI geI, 1985 c ieh ienswnI vrqoN leI mnzUr ho geI[ rswiexk kntrwst qy spYSl iPlm Gol nwl Ayksry, sI tI skYn, AYm Awr AweI qy Alrtw swaUf nwl ibmwrI jWc bhuq A~CI ho geI hY] fwktrI Awsotops 1943 c hMgrI dy jIAOrg hYvsy nMU nobl ienwm imilAw fwktrI AwsotopW nwl AMdrUnI AMgW dy kMm krn dy qwrIky jwxy jWdy hn[ 1935 c hyvsy ny POsPor dw mYtwbOilzm ryifE Awsotops nwl jwixAW[ DwqW ryfIE Awsopop nwl lybl kIqIAw jwdIAW hn, ijvy tYknIsIAm-99AYm qy QYlIAm-201 XW ryifE Epyk byrIAm qy AweIEfIn[ ryfIE lybl DwqW gYmw-jWc kYmry nwl srIr dy AMdr dI Poto leI jWdI hY[ ies qrW AMdrUnI PoVy, ilvr nuks qy idl dw shI kMm krnw dyiKAw jWdw hY] Rswiexk mwqrw jWc fwktrI ishq jWc KUn, ipSwb, t~tI, Quk qy psIny c rswiexk mwqrw jwnx nwl hudI hY[rswiexk rIAkSn mSInw, kmpUtrW Xw Gr c kIqI jw skdI hY[ 1900 dy SurU c mrIz dI hwlq dyK ky ibmwrI dw AMdwjw lwaudy sn[ jy dvweI nwl mrIz Tyk hudw aus nwl ibmwrI d~sI jwdI[ 1882 c pwl AYhrilc ny tweIPweIf dy jrm jo rMgy jw skdy hn, qW iehI ibmwrI sI[ ies qo pihlW mrIz dy rMg qo ibmwrI d~sI jwdI sI] Kud syhq jwc krnw Gr c tYst-ikt nwl Kud syhq jWc SurU hoeI[ iek smy SUgr dy mrIz hspqwl jw ky pSwb c SUgr cYk krWdy[ 1941 c mweIlz lYb ny Gr SUgr tYst ikt bxweI[ 1956 c pSwb c p~qrw pw ky ieh tYst jox l~gw] 1960 cukvW KUn glUkos mItr rswiexk sIKW nwl fwieAwbYitk mrIzW dy hwlwq suDry[ imz roientjn dy h~Q h~fIAW dw prCWvw

5 111. tknOlOjI dy mhwn kdm, ishq qy dvweIAW ienPYkSn-rok dvweIAW Slvwrsn qy prOntoisl 1909 c jrmn pwl AYhrilc AwrsYink dIAW bYktIrIAw nwS gux dyK ky slvwrsn nwl jwn lyvw isPls dw ielwz jIqw[ ies FMg nwl hor icigAwnkW ny ienPYkSn dy ielwz l~By[ 1932 pihlI slPw dvweI prOntoisl (slPwinlAmweIf) jo k~pVw rMgx dy kMm AwaudI sI, nmonIAW krn vwly strYptokOkl bYktIrIAw dw ielwz l~iBAw[ ies Koj kwrn jrmn jYrlf domYgk nUM 1939 c nobl ienwm imilAw[ ies qo 1938 c sulPwpwierwfIn bxI[ 1940 c slPw dvweIAW nwl kroVW lokW dI nmonIAW no jwn bcI[ pYnslIn inkln slPw dvweIAW dI jsUrq G~t geI] pYnslIn 1928 c AlYgzYnfr PlYimMg ny aulI (pYnysIlIAm notytum) coN bYktIrIAw nwSk pYnsIiln inkwlI[ 1943 c bhuq pYnsiln bxI ijs ny dUsrI mhwn jMg c AmrIkn qy brqwnIAW dy P~tV ispwhIAW dI jwn bcweI[ pYnsiln mihgI hon kwrn mrIz ispwhIAW dy pSwb co BI inkwlI geI] 1945 ku c brqwnIAW dI fOrQI kroPut hwjikn ny ies dI bxqr jWc ky ieh bxw leI[ ies nwl nvIn bYktIrIAw mwr ielwz dw zmwnw SurU hoieAw] XIfovUfIn (ey XI tI) XIfovUfIn (ey XI tI) 1987 c ienswnI ieiminE-fYPISYnsI vwiers (AYc AweI vI) dy ielwz leI AmrIkw c mnzUr hoeI[ 1964 c ieh bxweI geI pr kImo ielwz leI nwkwm rhI [ 1986 c ieh AmrIkw c ieh rYtro vwiers leI TIk swbq hoeI[ ies iksm dIAW dvweIAw vwiers dy AYnzweImW nUM Kqm krdIAW hn[ AYc AweI vI leI iek dvweI Asr krnw ruk jwdI hY, ies leI iek dvweI nwl ies dw ielwz nhI hudw] prOntoisl pYnysIlIAm notytum XIfovUfIn AlYgzYfr PlYimMg jYrlf domYgk strYptokOks bYktIrIAw XIfovUfIn kirstlz

6 111. tknOlOjI dy mhwn kdm, ishq qy dvweIAW idl dIAW ibmwrIAW dy ielwj idl DVkn shI r~Kxw 1930 c prokyn ijs nwl idl dI DVkn shI hudI hY dI Koj hoeI[prokyn nUM mnzUrI imlI ikau ik idl gMBIr mwmlw hY[ prokyn sofIAm cYnl protIn nUM rok lwaudI hY[ ies qoN bwd bItw blOkr, potYSIAm Xw kYlSIAm AYntwgoinst hor dvweIaW bxIAW] idl Pyl hox qoN ielwj ifjItYils glweIkosweIf sdIAW qoN jo keI bUitAW coN imldw jY, idl Pyl hox qo vriqAw jwdw hY[ rIsrc ny l~iBAw ieh ikvy idl dI sMugVnw (kntrYkSn) vdwaudw hY[ 1954 c fweIgOksn jo grySIAn POkslv (ifjItYils lYntw) dy p~iqAW c hY, AwrtIrIAl iPbrlySn qy knjYsitv idl Pyl dy bcw leI hY[ bl~f prYSr rokx vwlIAW dvweIAW idl Pyl dw ielwj krdIAW hn]. bl~f klwt qoVnw 1935 c hYpirn jo pSU ilvr coN inkwlI geI, bl~f klwt rokx leI vrqI geI, ieh KUn pqlw krn vwlI swbq hoeI[ ieh idl Xw ArtIrIAl srjrI c vrqI jWdI[ 1955 c vwrPwirn (kumwifn) idmwg qy idl dy dOry c klwt qoVn leI mnzUr ho geI[ 1970 pqw l~igAw ik bxy klwt BI qoVy jw skdy hn[ AYnXweImz nwl klwt qoVn leI 1977 c XUrokweInyz, 1978 c strYptokweInyz qy jnYtIklI ienjnIArf rIkmbInYt itSU plwzimnojn AYktIvytr, tI pI ey (1987)] KUn c klYstrol G~t krnw AwrtrIAW c klYstrOl jmW (AwrtIrIEsklYroiss) jo ky kOronrI idl dI ibmwrI qy strok hox dw muK kwrn hn[ 1987 c lovwstYitn (mYvwkor) klYstrOl bnx nUM rokdI hYY, ies dw Kws jrUrI AYnXweIm-rok ky mYvwlonyt nUM bnx qoN rok ky Asr krdI hY[ iPr ismvwstYitn qy AYtrovwstYitn KUn c klYstrOl G~t krdIAw qy ieh ijAwdw Asr qy sUt krdIAW hn] AwrtIirEsklYroiss

7 111. tknOlOjI dy mhwn kdm, ishq qy dvweIAW kYnsr kImoN ielwj kYnsr kImoN ielwj c vwDw 1942 c LUAs gufmYn qy AYlfrf iglmYn ny nweItrojn mstrfz rswiexW nwl kYnsr (kYnsr kImo ielwz) rokxW SurU kIqw[ dvweIAW jo Poilk AYsf nUM rokdIAW (AYntImYtwbolweIts) SurU kIqIAW[ 1947 c AmInoptYirn KUn dy kYnsr ielwz leI sI, pr ies dy bury Asr kwrn mYQotrYkseyt ny ies dI QW leI[ 1950 c jOrj ihicMgz qy cwrlz hweIflbrgr ny AyntImYtwboilitk mrkYptopUrIn KUn dy kYnsr leI qy PloroXUrwisl pyt qy CwqI kYnsr dy ielwz leI bxweIAW] sweItotOkisk dvweIAW sweItotOkisk dvweIAW (sYlW leI zYhrIlIAW) 1963 c bUitAW coN inkwl ky kImo ielwz SurU hoieAw[ CyqI vDdy kYnsr sYl ienW nwl mr jwxgy ienW dw isDWq hY[ 1970 c pYrIivMkl bUty qoN ivnkw APIm (ivnkirstIn qy ivnblwstIn) myAYYpl qoN pofwPwlotOkisn bxwey[ 1971 c tYksOl pYsiPk XaU qoN bixAW qy 1990 c vDI CwqI qy PyPiVAW dI kYnsr ielwz leI vrqI geI] tmOksIiPn tmOksIiPn snQYitk 1971 c bxI qy 1977 c AYstrojn nwl bxI CwqI dI kYnsr leI vrqI geI[ izAwdw AYstrojn kYnsr CyqI vdwaudI hY[ mYMygwstIrOl bxwieAW hoieAw srIrk projYstrOn vrgw hY qy CwqI dy kYnsr rokx leI vrqI jwdI hY] CwqI dI kYnsr dw mYmogrwP Awp cYk krky kYnsr dw CyqI pqw l~gdw hY

8 111. tknOlOjI dy mhwn kdm, ishq qy dvweIAW nvIn ishq r~iKAk swmwn bxwey hoey AMg qy AOzwr rswiex nwl bxwey hoey l~qW, bwhW, AMg, joV, kntYkt lYnS, suxn vwlIAW mSInw Awid Kws plwsitk qy nvIn mwl qoN bxy[ rswiexk bxqr bdl ky fwktrI swmwn sKq, muV jwn vwlw qy v~D imAwd vwlw rswiexkW qy ienjnIArW ny bxwieAw[ 1945 c bxweI hoey gurdy, 1950 c idl dw vwlv, 1982 c idl[ plwsitk kntYkt lYnz 1956 c qy ieh 1985 bweI-Pokwl bxy] MfwktrI jMqr rRswiex ny A~j dy swry plwsitk qy vweInl dy hspqwl dy AOjwr qy jMqr bxwey[ A~j ieh swmwn swP, stYrweIl qy iktwxU mukq hY[ nvIn mrz jwc swmwn, stYQoskop, p~tIAW, sirMjW, cIr-PwV jMqr, KUn QYly, rswiex nwl bxy[ fweIprW c BI isl cukx vwlw pOlImr hY jo nwzk cmVI nUM soijS qo bcwdw hY] ifsienPYktYnts qy blIc rswiex kwrn Gr swP qy jrm rihq hn, aulI mwrI jwdI hY, dwg lwhy jwdy hn[ 1900 c bYktIrIAw mwrn, k~pVw sPweI qy Gr sPweI dw swmwn bixAw[ 1913 ssqw blIc bixAw jo A~j BI kroVW kItwxU mwrn dy kMm AWdw hY[ klorIn vwiers qy bYktIrIAw GrW, hspqwlW qy iemwrqW c mwrn leI vrqI jwdI hY[ 1987 c hMgrI dy sYimlvIs ny klorIn dy pwnI nwl h~Q swP SurU krwey] bxwieAw idl bxwieAw idl vwlv


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