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4. tknOlOjI dy mhwn kdm, Anwj qy KyqIbwVI

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Presentation on theme: "4. tknOlOjI dy mhwn kdm, Anwj qy KyqIbwVI"— Presentation transcript:

1 4. tknOlOjI dy mhwn kdm, Anwj qy KyqIbwVI
4.1. KwdW qy BUmI nXUtrIAYnts nwtrojn jmW krnw nweItrojn jmW krn c iktwxU hvw dI nweItrojn ienAOrgYink kmpOaufs c iPr AOrgYink kmpOaunfs ijs qoN bUitAW dy protIn bx jWdy hn[ ijAwdw PslW augwx nwl zmIn c nweItrytW dI kmI ho jWdI hY[ hybr-bwS dy FMg nwl AmonIAW bxwieAw jWdw hY, nweItrojn Kwd bxwx dy hor BI FMg hn[ 1956 c kYlfwl qrIky nwl AOrgYink nweItrojn dI shI jWc nwl ies Kyqr c vwDw hoieAw[ nweItrojn c~kr jVW c gMFW hybr-bwS FMg 19-vI sdI dy AMq c Anwj dI Gwt qy vDdI jMqw dw iPkr sI[ zmIn c nweItrojn dI Gwt vD rhI sI ies leI koeI Kwd nhI sI[ dunIAW c kwl pYx dw fr sI[ hvw dI nweItrojn qoN kmpwaufs bxwxy zrUrI sI[ 1908 c jrmn Pirtz hybr ny AmonIAW bxwx dw FMg KoijAw[ ieh bxdw hY aucy qwpmwn qy dbw ADIn nwl Awiern kYtwilst[ c bI eY AYs AyP dy kwrl bwS ny AmonIAm bxwx dw kwrKwnw lwieAw[ ies nwl vDdI jnqw dy nwl Anwj dI aupj c BI vwDw hoieAw] Pirtz hybr rswiexk KwdW c qr~kI 1913 c rswiexk KwdW dy bxn nwl PslW dI aupj vDI[ 1930 dwxydwr KwdW qy 1965 c KwdW dy Gol AmrIkw c Awey[ 1970 c GrW c vrqx vwlI Kwd bxI[ hux tweIm rlIz KwdW imldIAW hn] hrI krWqI qy hweIbirf bUty 1870 c hweIbirf bUty bxy jo cMgy qy v~D aupj vwly sn[ rswiex ny psMdI hweIbirf jo ijAwdw Kwd lY skdy sn bxwey[ 1943 c hrI krWqI kwrn mYksIko c kxk dI loV pUrI hoeI[ 1964 q~k eySIAw dy lok hweIbirF PslW augwx l~gy[ AmrIkw c hux m~kI qy AwlU dy p~iqAw c kIVy mwr gux hn]

2 4. tknOlOjI dy mhwn kdm, Anwj qy KyqIbwVI
4.2. PslW dw kIiVAW qoN bcwauxw PMgs qoN bcx dw borfO qrIkw 1882 c PrWs dy pIAr imlwrfYt ny kOpr-sulPyt qy iglw cUnw (borfO Gol) imlw ky AMgUr dy bwg dI aulI mwr idqI[ hux borfO Gol nwl bhuq PslW dI aulI mwrI jWdI jY[ ieh rswiexk FMg nwl PslW dw bcw sI[ 1934 c fweIQwieE-kwrbwmyt 1996 c strobIlurn PslW dI aulI leI vrqy jwx l~gy] fI fI tI qy kIVy mwr dvweIAW kIVy mwr dvweIAW nwl aulI, kIVy qy ndIx mwry jWdy hn[1939 c pwl mulr ny fI fI tI (fweIklor-fweIiPnweIl-trweIklorAYQyn) nwl AwlUAW dI BUfI mwrI[ 20 swl fI fI tI nwl PslW dy kIVy mwry gey[ 1960 c fI fI tI dy AOgux qy hux kIVy nw mrn kwrn hor dvweIAW bxIAW[ ijnw dy bury Asr G~t hn] fI fI tI mlyrIey qoN dvweI fI fI tI nwl AMfy dI iCl pqlI hoeI pSUAW dI ihPwzq pSUAW leI dvweIAW qy vYksIn ny Bojn cMgw bxwieAw[ c lueI pwscr ny vYksIn nwl AYnQrYks dw ielwz kIqw[ 1981 c pSUAW dy kIVy qy sMuf mwrn leI AweIvrmYkitn bxI[ hux mYf gW dI ibmwrI dw ielwz l~iBAw jw irhw hY] lueI pwscr mSInw nwl KyqI ipClI sdI c rswiex ny Kwd, kIVy mwr dvweIAW, pwxI dy nwl, KyqI leI mSInrI BI idqI[ ijs nwl KyqI sOKI qy aupjwaU hoeI[ c AmrIkn holt ny fIzl trYktr bxwieAw[ A~j trYktr, kmbweInW. isMjxw, kmpautr, ptrOl, jI pI AYs qy nvIn tYknOlOjI dI vrqoN KyqI c hY] Psl k~tx vwlI kMbweIn holt ny bxwieAw cyn vwlw trYktr

3 4. tknOlOjI dy mhwn kdm, Anwj qy KyqIbwVI
4.3. Bojn Sud qy swP hoxw sYkirn qy imTw bnwvtI imTy nwl SUgr dy mrIzW leI imTw bixAw qy cInI dI vrqoN GtI[ 1901 c jwn kuAYnI ny sYkirn bxweI[ 1967 c hweI-Prutoz m~kI dw Srbq sB soifAW c Awm ho igAw[ 1985 c AmrIkw c Aspwrtym bixAw (naUtrwsvIt), ieh 1955 c kYnsr dI dvweI vxI sI] ivtwimn ivtwimn dI Gwt kwrn bhuq ibmwrIAW lgdIAW[ 1913 c ivtwimn “e”y dI Koj m~Kx qy Awfy coN hoeI, ieh nzr leI zrUrI hY[ 1931 c ies dI bxqr pqw l~gI[ c ieh lYb c bxwieAw igAw[ c hMgrI dy AYlbrt sXYt-gYAOrZI ny ivtwimn “sI” (AskOribk AYisf) l~iBAw[ c jnYitk-bdl ky sunYhrI-cwvl ijs c pro-ivtwimn “e”Y hY eYSIAw c nzr bcwx leI vrqx l~gy] Bojn bxwauxw qy swBxw Bojn rswiex dw muF jrmnI dy jsts lIibg ny r~iKAw[ ijs ny 19 vI sdI dy A~D c mIt dw Ark k~iFAw[ Bojn bxwx qy sWBx dIAW KojW ny swnU bixAw hoieAw Bojn idqw[ PrIz-sukwxw, 1920 c Bojn PrIz krnw, 1939 c p~ikAw Bojn PrIz krnw, 1946 c PlW dy gwVy Srbq bxn l~gy] lI ibg mIt dw Ark Bojn sur~iKk qy tYst krnw Bojn k~cw Xw p~ikAw ivc iqAwrI smy, p~kx vyly, vrqwx c Xw stor krn qy jrm pY ky ishq leI hwnIkwrk ho skdw hY[ rswiexk tYst nwl ibmwrI Pylx qoN pihlW rokI jw skdI hY[ 1997 qoN 1999 q~k AmrIkw c Bojn qoN PYlx vwlIAW ibmwrIAW 20% GtIAW]

4 4. tknOlOjI dy mhwn kdm, Anwj qy KyqIbwVI
4.4. Bojn stor krnw Bujn pYk krnw Bojn plwsitk, SISy, cInI Xw tIn dY f~ibAw pYk hox nwl ivkx, Byjx Xw pkwx vYly sur~iKk rihdw hY[ 1930 c rYlP vweIlI ny srYn pOlImr (vweIinlfIn-klorweIf qy vweIinl klorweIf) bxwieAw, 1953 c GrW c vrqx leI srYn rYp jo AwksIjn, is~l, bdbU qoN Bojn sKq qwpmwn qy nmI qoN bcwdI hY[ 1960 c AlmonIAm dy f~by Bojn qy soifAW leI, 1970 c pI eI tI (pOlIieQlIn tYtrwQYlyt) ny SISy Xw AlmInIAm dI QW lY leI] kloroPlorokwrbn rPirjrYt 1918 c ieh GrW dy rPirjrytr c vriqAw igAw ijs nwl qwjw Bojn iePwjq nwl lYjwx Xw stor krnw sMBv hoieAw[ ku c slPr fweIAYksweIf jihrIlI hox kwrn rPirjrytr bdnwm hoey[ PrIAon-12 (sI AYP SI) QOms imfgly qy cwrls kYtirg ny 1931 c bxwieAw[ rPirjrytr GrW, hotlW qy dukwnW c Awm ho gey[ zmIn dI Ezon qYih Gtwx kwrn PrIaOn hux bMd ho geI] 1980 c brP dw f~bw, hux rPirjrytr mweIkrovyv Avn 20-vI sdI c GrW c aupkrnw ny Bojn iqAwr krn dI mjdUrI G~tw idqI hY[ mwkrovyv Avn iek Ajyhw aupkrn hY[ c prsI spYsr ny dyiKAw ik ryQIAn dy ryfwr kol Kwx vwlI tukVI Fl geI[ ies qrW mweIkrovyv dw jnm hoieAw[ 10 swl c aus dI ryfwr ryz vpwrk rsoeIAW c AweI[ mYgnwtrOn jo dunIAw dI dUsrI jMg dy ryfwr c sn GrW dy aupkrnw c vrqy jWdy hn] hwpoklors qjwb dw mOlIkaUl Sud pwxI rswiex ny bYktIrIAw, vwiers Xw hor imlwvt qoN mukq Sud pwxI idqw hY[ kwrbn nwl bdbU qy rMg, rswiexW nwl hYvI-mYtlz nvIn tknOlOjI nwl Sud pwxI imldw hY[ 1910 c klorIn nwl pwxI swP kIqw, 1913 c GrW c blIc AwieAw[ rsoeIAW qy Bojn iqAwrI c klorIn vwly iktwxU mwr Gol vrqy jWdy hn]


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