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Chapter 22 Notes.  After the Mongols, no single power controlled Central Asia, and no unified economic policy protected and promoted trade.  Also, the.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 22 Notes.  After the Mongols, no single power controlled Central Asia, and no unified economic policy protected and promoted trade.  Also, the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 22 Notes

2  After the Mongols, no single power controlled Central Asia, and no unified economic policy protected and promoted trade.  Also, the sea trade replaced the old overland trade route through Central Asia.  Land-based empires of Eurasia (Ottoman, Russian, Mughal, and Ming) were at a disadvantage in the competition with sea- based empires of Europe.

3  Society of Jesus (Jesuits)  Often preceded traders, explorers, & conquerors  Francis Xavier, Matteo Ricci  Most prominent transmitter of European science and technology to China and of Chinese philosophy and literature to Europe  East India Companies  Dutch East India Company(VOC) secured favor in China and Japan  East India Company of England was VOC’s biggest rival  These groups became conduits of trade and knowledge between Asia and Europe.

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5  After end of Mongol power in Russia, power moved from Kiev to Moscow.  Muscovy prince Ivan IV (the Terrible) took title tsar in 1547 and extended Russia’s borders to east and north.  “Time of Troubles” included internal struggles as well as external wars.  Mikhail Romanov started a new dynasty which lasted until  Romanovs saw the east as their only option for expansion.

6  Surrounding Russia to the north, east, and parts of south were Turkic people.  Russian and Turkic peoples cooperated but were suspicious of one another.  Hostility increased when Ottomans emerged as a great power in the region.  Cossacks demonstrate a way Russia combined elements considered “Turk” with those considered “Russian.”  Military skills of Asian horsemen  Russian-speakers, Christians, helped build Russian empire

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8  Ottoman War  Wanted warm-water port on Black Sea  Liberate Istanbul  Protector of Orthodox Christians in Balkans  Failed – but idea remained  Great Northern War  Broke Swedish control of Baltic Sea  Established direct contacts between Russia and Europe

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10  St. Petersburg  Built on land taken from Sweden, became Russia’s capital  Built in style of Western Europe – Russia’s “window to the west”  Nobles forced to wear western clothes and shave, ended seclusion of upper-class women  Autocracy  Peter wanted to break power of boyars.  Brought Russian Orthodox Church under state control  Increased burdens of taxes and forced labor on the serfs

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13  Ivan IV began Russian exploration of Siberia  Furs & timber first valuable resources  After 1700 gold, coal, & iron became important.  From early 1600s used as a penal colony  Rivalry with Qing China  Treaties finally set official borders  Allowed Russia to expand to the Pacific  North America  Added Alaska  Russian traders active along entire western coast of North America

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16  Ming manufacturers had transformed the global economy with their techniques for the assembly-line production of porcelain.  Europeans loved the blue-on-white porcelain and traders requested special European designs.  This market for porcelain and other Chinese goods stimulated the commercial development of East Asia, the Indian Ocean, and Europe.

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18  Natural disasters  Climate change  Agricultural distress  Uprisings  Inflation (Despite influx of silver, the Ming government maintained a strict ratio in price between silver and copper coins.)  Porcelain factories plagued by disorder and inefficiency  Slow introduction of foods from Americas and Africa

19  Under pressure from powerful Mongol federations of Central Asia  Mongols had unified under Tibetan Buddhism.  Khan designated a dalai lama, or universal teacher to legitimize his rule.  Japanese warriors invaded Korea (a Chinese tributary state)  Manchus contributed troops (at a high cost for impoverished Ming) to help stop invasion  Korea’s “turtle boats” stopped the invasion but both Korea and Ming were weakened.

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21  Rebellious forces captured Beijing.  Imperial family fled city.  Ming general invited Manchus to take Beijing from rebels.  Qing did this but kept power rather than restoring Ming.  Ming imperial family appealed to Pope for help.  Dead before Pope’s response arrived.

22  The Qing Empire was ruled by a Manchu imperial family and Manchus were the leaders of the military forces.  While it was a diverse empire, the overwhelming majority of officials, soldiers, merchants, and farmers were Chinese.  Spread into south China and Central Asia.  Fostered economic and demographic recovery.  Foreign trade was encouraged.

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24  Became emperor as a child (1662).  In 1669, at 16, he gained control over the government by executing his chief regent.  Intellectual prodigy  Successful military commander  Personally led troops in bringing Mongolia under Qing control.  Battled with and then made peace with Russian Empire  Died in 1722, reign marked by expansion and stability in the empire

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26  Part of the effectiveness of the Kangxi era was due to Qing willingness to incorporate ideas/technologies from other regions.  Mongol system of political organization  Korean and Chinese agricultural practices  Jesuit influence Maps in European style Considered European calendar but faced strong opposition Medical expertise Anatomical & pharmaceutical knowledge Mathematics, astronomy, European civilization

27  To gain converts among Chinese elite, Jesuits made compromises in their religious teaching.  Most important was toleration of Confucian ancestor worship  Caused conflict with Catholic rivals in China and Pope  Chinese knowledge brought to Europe by Jesuits  Early form of inoculation that eventually inspired vaccines  Porcelain factories

28  Success of Qing caused admiration in Europe.  Demand for Chinese goods  Silk, porcelain, tea  Wallpaper  Chinese produce items especially for Europe  Admiration for Chinese philosophy  Voltaire proclaimed Qing emperors model philosopher-kings and advocated such rulership  Desire for communications with China

29  Qing were eager to expand China’s economic influence but were determined to control trade very strictly.  Allowed imperial family to enjoy benefits of taxation  Limited piracy and smuggling  To regulate trade, Qing allowed only one market point for each trading sector.  This system worked well for European traders until the late 1700s.

30  British had become a important presence in East Asia.  Tea from China became enormously popular in Britain.  English traders felt the Qing system hindered their opportunities to make money from the millions of potential Chinese consumers.  British government was concerned about the massive trade deficit with China.  Sent George Macartney to open diplomatic relations with China and revise the trade system.

31  Maccartney mission was a complete fiasco!  Chinese would not allow Maccartney to travel to Beijing.  Maccartney refused to perform the kowtow, and Chinese officials refused to bow to a portrait of the king of England.  The basic issues were unresolvable.  Dutch, French, & Russian officials also failed to achieve changes in trade.  European attitudes toward China began to shift.

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33  Massive population growth due to new crops and Qing peace.  Qing had outgrown government.  Same number of officials as Ming with twice the land and four times the population  Couldn’t keep up with repairs and environmental issues  Led to misery in many parts of interior China  Qing fell victim to basic problems of land- based empires.  Conquered huge stretch of territory to defend itself against Russia  Costs of maintaining territory was enormous.

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35  Japan’s centralized political system had broken down in the 12 th century, when the first of the decentralized military governments – the shogunates – had been created.  In 1600 a new shogun, Tokugawa Ieyasu, declared victory.  The emperor of Japan had no political power; he remained at Kyoto the medieval capital.

36  The Tokugawa shoguns built a new capital for themselves at Edo (now Tokoyo).  The shogun was served by the regional lords, each of who maintained a castle town, a small bureaucracy, a population of warriors – samurai – and military support personnel.  The shoguns paid the lords in rice, and the lords paid their followers in rice. Recipients had to convert a large portion of their rice to cash.

37  This system led to well-spaced urban centers.  Good roads, traffic, and commerce linked Edo to three of the four main islands of Japan.  Rice exchanges developed at Edo and Osaka, where merchants speculated in rice prices.

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40  Like China, Japan was a target of missionary activity by the Jesuits.  Converts among the elite were few, and the shogunal court at Edo was consistently hostile to Christianity.  Christianity was more successful among the farmers in the countryside. The Jesuits had their greatest success in the southern and eastern regions of Japan.

41  In the late 1630s, these regions were the scenes of massive uprisings by impoverished farmers.  The rebellions, which were ruthlessly suppressed were blamed on Christian influence.  Hundreds of Japanese Christians were crucified.  Belief in Christianity was banned by law.  It became punishable by death for foreigners to come to Japan or for Japanese to leave.

42  The purpose of the closing was to prevent the spread of foreign influence in Japan – not to exclude from Japan knowledge of foreign cultures.  A few Dutch were permitted to trade in Japan, and a few Japanese were licensed to provide for them.  The western knowledge they acquired spread.

43  Population growth put a great strain on the well-developed lands of central Japan.  Government was unable to stabilize rice prices which weakened the samurai.  Like other Confucian societies, the Tokugawa tried to limit the power of merchants.  The crisis of Tokugawa Japan’s transformation from a military to a civil society is demonstrated by the “Forty-seven Ronin” incident of 1702.

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