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World History: The Earth and its Peoples Chapter 20 Eurasia, 1500-1800.

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Presentation on theme: "World History: The Earth and its Peoples Chapter 20 Eurasia, 1500-1800."— Presentation transcript:

1 World History: The Earth and its Peoples Chapter 20 Eurasia,

2 Objectives Understand the roles of the Jesuits and the East India Companies in the development of cultural exchange and trade between Europe and Eastern Eurasia. Be able to use the concept of “land-based empires” to analyze the territorial expansion, the economic and political structures, and the foreign relations of the Russian and Qing empires. Be able to describe the causes and symptoms of the decline of the Qing state in the eighteenth century. Be able to describe the Tokugawa political system and explain why and how the decentralized political structure contributed simultaneously to economic growth and the weakening of the Tokugawa state.

3 Eastern Eurasia, Eurasian Patterns –no central rule –weakening of overland trade –advent of seaborne trade Land–Based Empires –Ottoman, Mughal, Russian, Ming emphasis on agriculture –forced labor, serfdom political centralization –disadvantage to sea-based European Influence –Society of Jesus (Jesuits) missionaries –Matteo Ricci ( ) European technology

4 The Russian Empire Muscovite Princes –Moscow –Ivan IV – 1547 tsar –removal of Golden Horde –“Time of Troubles” Sweden, Poland, Ottomans replacement of Princes Mikhail Romanov –boyar –consolidation and competition Russian Culture –Slavic (Russian) and Turkic –Cossacks Turkic word – ‘warrior’ Turks, E. Europeans, Mongols defended western frontier

5 The Russian Empire Peter the Great – –Black Sea port, Christianity –‘Great Northern War’ – Baltic Sea access European recognition –St. Petersburg – 1712 “window on the West” strengthen state / autocracy –Political autocracy boyars, church, peasants –serfdom Eastern Push –less threat in west –Mongolia / Siberia / Pacific fur trade natural resources –timber, precious metals

6 Ming and Qing Empires, Late Ming Strengths –silk, furniture, porcelain Portuguese and Dutch –tributary status –vast population (100M) Weaknesses –climate change famine and disease external pressure –Mongolia –Manchus »Japan in Korea –‘silver’ inflation uprisings 1644 rebellion

7 Ming and Qing Empires, Qing Empire –Manchus minority rule Taiwan, C. Asia (Tibet) Kangxi –Russian struggles –Treaty of Nerchinsk Amur River border –Mongolia –Jesuit influence s Confucian ancestor worship two-way influence –variolation Qianlong

8 Amur River

9 Ming and Qing Empires, European Thirst –Luxury items tea, silk, porcelain, wallpaper –political philosophy benevolent despots –limitless profit potential EIC Chinese Trade –imperial control taxation; limit piracy kowtow (VOC) –“the Canton system” Portugal, Holland, England –Macartney mission open trade with G. Britain –negative European reaction

10 Ming and Qing Empires, Qing Stresses –rising population 400M by 1700 stagnant agriculture –deforestation erosion Grand Canal –localized misery migration failure to adapt to changes –local elites –corruption shrinking revenues –land-based empires maintenance costs

11 Tokugawa Japan to 1800 Shogunates –little centralized rule Tokugawa Shogunate –relative peace –land grants for support daimyo –rice –samurai –emperor as figurehead Edo to Kyoto traffic urban centers for trade –Shogun responses samurai –economic well being merchants –control prices

12 Outer Lords (Daimyos)

13 Tokugawa Japan to 1800 Merchant Class –rise in wealth alliances with daimyo –key to industrial transformation Isolation –Jesuits mixed response –few converts (farmers) peasant revolts –Christian blame closing of country –prevent outside influences –“Dutch studies” –Effect ignored by some daimyos –‘outer’ lords

14 Tokugawa Japan to 1800 Instability –‘outer’ lord sea trade –population growth –increasing rice prices –samurai economic decline debt to merchants Shogunate Power –rested on daimyo / samurai health –traditional land-based response Confucian ideals –decentralized government little economic control Military to Civil Society –“Forty-seven Ronin”

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