Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

World History: The Earth and its Peoples

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "World History: The Earth and its Peoples"— Presentation transcript:

1 World History: The Earth and its Peoples
Chapter 20 Eurasia,

2 Objectives Understand the roles of the Jesuits and the East India Companies in the development of cultural exchange and trade between Europe and Eastern Eurasia. Be able to use the concept of “land-based empires” to analyze the territorial expansion, the economic and political structures, and the foreign relations of the Russian and Qing empires. Be able to describe the causes and symptoms of the decline of the Qing state in the eighteenth century. Be able to describe the Tokugawa political system and explain why and how the decentralized political structure contributed simultaneously to economic growth and the weakening of the Tokugawa state.

3 Eastern Eurasia, 1500-1800 Land–Based Empires Eurasian Patterns
no central rule weakening of overland trade advent of seaborne trade Land–Based Empires Ottoman, Mughal, Russian, Ming emphasis on agriculture forced labor, serfdom political centralization disadvantage to sea-based European Influence Society of Jesus (Jesuits) missionaries Matteo Ricci ( ) European technology

4 The Russian Empire Muscovite Princes Russian Culture Moscow
Ivan IV – 1547 tsar removal of Golden Horde “Time of Troubles” Sweden, Poland, Ottomans replacement of Princes Mikhail Romanov boyar consolidation and competition Russian Culture Slavic (Russian) and Turkic Cossacks Turkic word – ‘warrior’ Turks, E. Europeans, Mongols defended western frontier

5 The Russian Empire Peter the Great – 1689-1725 Eastern Push
Black Sea port, Christianity ‘Great Northern War’ – Baltic Sea access European recognition St. Petersburg – 1712 “window on the West” strengthen state / autocracy Political autocracy boyars, church, peasants serfdom Eastern Push less threat in west Mongolia / Siberia / Pacific fur trade natural resources timber, precious metals

6 Ming and Qing Empires, 1500-1800 Late Ming - 1500-1644 Strengths
silk, furniture, porcelain Portuguese and Dutch tributary status vast population (100M) Weaknesses climate change famine and disease external pressure Mongolia Manchus Japan in Korea ‘silver’ inflation uprisings 1644 rebellion

7 Ming and Qing Empires, 1500-1800 Qing Empire - 1644-1783
Manchus minority rule Taiwan, C. Asia (Tibet) Kangxi Russian struggles Treaty of Nerchinsk Amur River border Mongolia Jesuit influence s Confucian ancestor worship two-way influence variolation Qianlong

8 Amur River

9 Ming and Qing Empires, 1500-1800 European Thirst Chinese Trade
Luxury items tea, silk, porcelain, wallpaper political philosophy benevolent despots limitless profit potential EIC Chinese Trade imperial control taxation; limit piracy kowtow (VOC) “the Canton system” Portugal, Holland, England Macartney mission open trade with G. Britain negative European reaction

10 Ming and Qing Empires, 1500-1800 Qing Stresses
rising population 400M by 1700 stagnant agriculture deforestation erosion Grand Canal localized misery migration failure to adapt to changes local elites corruption shrinking revenues land-based empires maintenance costs

11 Tokugawa Japan to 1800 Shogunates - 1200-1500
little centralized rule Tokugawa Shogunate relative peace land grants for support daimyo rice samurai emperor as figurehead Edo to Kyoto traffic urban centers for trade Shogun responses economic well being merchants control prices

12 Outer Lords (Daimyos)

13 Tokugawa Japan to 1800 Merchant Class Isolation rise in wealth
alliances with daimyo key to industrial transformation Isolation Jesuits mixed response few converts (farmers) peasant revolts Christian blame closing of country prevent outside influences “Dutch studies” Effect ignored by some daimyos ‘outer’ lords

14 Tokugawa Japan to 1800 Instability Shogunate Power
‘outer’ lord sea trade population growth increasing rice prices samurai economic decline debt to merchants Shogunate Power rested on daimyo / samurai health traditional land-based response Confucian ideals decentralized government little economic control Military to Civil Society “Forty-seven Ronin”

Download ppt "World History: The Earth and its Peoples"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google