2An Introduction to Stress STRESS AND STRESSORSStressResponse to perceived threats or challenges resulting from stimuli or events that cause strainStressorsStimuli that cause physiological, psychological, and emotional reactions at any time
3An Introduction to Stress STRESS AND STRESSORSEustressStress response to agreeable or positive stressorsDistressStress response to unpleasant and undesirable stressors
4An Introduction to Stress Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)Holmes and RaheAmong first to propose life-changing events are potentially stressorsAny event that required a life-adjustment can cause a stress.Life-changing events can have cumulative effect.Some links found between certain life events and illnesses.Social Readjustment Rating Scale ProtocolParticipants identified events and experiences in previous year from a list.Score calculated on severity rating and frequency of occurrence.
5An Introduction to Stress MAJOR LIFE EVENTSCollege Undergraduate Stress ScaleRating scale adapted to match life events of college studentsSample Items from the CollegeUndergraduate Stress Scale
6An Introduction to Stress POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD)Posttraumatic stress disorderPsychological disorder characterized by exposure to or threatened by an event involving death, serious injury, or sexual violence; can include disturbing memories, nightmares, flashbacks, and other distressing symptomsIncidenceGeneral population: 3.5 percentAfghanistan-deployed veterans and service members: percent
7An Introduction to Stress CHRONIC STRESSChronic stressLong-term or continuous state of nervous arousal where an individual perceives that demands are greater than the ability to meet themPovertyAs of 2011, 22 percent of children under 6 years in the United States were living below the poverty level.Living in poverty increases exposure to stress; stressors often persist across generations.For children in particular, the impact of SES can have lifelong repercussions as environmental stressors affect the developing brain.
8DeLongis found significant link between hassles and health problems. Recent research reported link between daily stressors and health problems and increased risk of catching contagious disease.Daily hassleMinor problems or irritants dealt with on regular basisUpliftsExperiences with potential to make an individual happyThe Hassles and Uplifts Scale Used to explore relationship between stress and illness
9Stress and Your Body FIGHT OR FLIGHT Physiological responses prepare us for an emergency by efficiently managing the body’s resources.When faced with a threatening situation, portions of the brain, including the hypothalamus, activate the sympathetic nervous system Which leads to the secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine These hormones cause heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, and blood flow to the muscles to increase.Meanwhile, digestion slows and the pupils dilate.
10Stress and Your Body FIGHT OR FLIGHT Once the emergency ends Parasympathetic system reverses these processes.Prolonged stressCan cause the immune system to break down even when stressor is not traumatic
11SHORT-TERM RESPONSES TO STRESS Colin Anderson / age fotostock
12GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME Alan Bailey/Shutterstock, ThinkstockGENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROMEIn the alarm stage, short-term responses are activated, giving us energy to combat a threat. In the resistance stage, resources remain mobilized, and we continue to cope with the stressor. But eventually we enter the exhaustion stage when we become weak and susceptible to illness, and are less able to cope with the stressor. (Selye, 1956)
13Stress and Your Body FIGHT OR FLIGHT Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal System (HPA)Oversees the sympathetic nervous system’s stress responseHelps maintain balance in body by directing sympathetic, neuroendocrine, and immune systemsResponds in same way it would to a pathogen
14Stress and Your Health IS STRESS MAKING YOU SICK? How body deals with stressHealth psychology: Seeks to explain how food choices, social interactions, and living environments affect predispositions to illness and healthStress decreases the production of: T lymphocytes (fight viruses, cancer) B lymphocytes (fight bacteria), Macrophages (consume invaders and worn-out cells) and Natural killer (NK) cells (kill diseased cells).
15Stress and Your Health Cancer and stressors Cancer has been linked to risk and development of stress.Stress has been linked to suppression of T lymphocytes and NK cells and effective immune system response.Stress has been correlated with breast cancer and colorectal cancer.Biopsychological influences such as age, medical history, social support, and mental health can mediate the link.
16Stress and Your Health Cardiovascular disease and stressors Disasters, socioeconomic status, social-evaluative threats, biopsychosocial stressors, and atherosclerosis are linked to the increase of cardiovascular disease.Stress increases the production of epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol.Increased production increases of plaque on artery walls
17Stress and Your Health INSIDIOUS STRESS Stress often exerts its harmful effects more indirectly.During times of stress, people may sleep poorly, eat erratically, and perhaps even drink more alcohol.Juan Manuel Silva/age fotostockWorking odd hours, not getting enough exercise, eating poorly, and dealing with the ongoing stresses of paramedic work make it challenging to stay healthy.
18Stress and Your Health: Too Much Cortisol Cortisol and kidsNegative effects of stress are apparent early in life.Consequences of increased cortisol levels during pregnancy contribute to host of health problems.Conflicts at home are linked to increased cortisol level in preschoolers.Cortisol on the jobHigh cortisol levels can have dire consequences for adults.Functioning of working memory decreases for some in highly stressful situations.Higher cortisol levels contributed to heightened vigilance for danger in studies of ethnically diverse police officers and suspects.
20Factors Related to Stress COPING WITH STRESSAppraisal and copingCopingCognitive, behavioral, and emotional abilities used to effectively manage something that is perceived as difficult or challengingPrimary appraisalOne’s initial assessment of a situation to determine its personal impact and whether it is irrelevant, positive, challenging, or harmfulSecondary appraisalAssessment to determine how to respond to a challenging or threatening situation
21Factors Related to Stress COPING WITH STRESSAppraisal and copingProblem-focused copingCoping strategy in which a person deals directly with a problem by attempting to solve and address it head-onEmotion-focused copingCoping strategy in which a person addresses the emotions that surround a problem, as opposed to trying to solve it
22Factors Related to Stress COPING WITH STRESS Personality appears to have a profound effect on coping style and predispositions to stress-related illness. Type A personality: Competitive, aggressive, impatient, and often hostile pattern of behaviors Type B personality: Relaxed, patient, and nonaggressive pattern of behaviors Type D personality: Characterized by emotions like worry, tension, bad moods, and social inhibition; tend to avoid dealing with their problems directly and don’t take advantage of social support
23Factors Related to Stress COPING WITH STRESSThree C’s of hardinessCommitmentControlChallenge
24Factors Related to Stress COPING WITH STRESSSense of personal control is related to a variety of health issues across the life span.Less control felt, the greater the risk for diseaseChoices increase perceived sense of control.Sense of powerlessness is associated with increases in catecholamines and corticosteroids involved with stress response.Perceived sense of control can be internal or external.
25Check It Out! Take a minute to answer the questions found on page 533. Were you surprised or relieved to discover how stressed you are?Psychologist Sheldon Cohen and colleagues (1983) developed the Perceived Stress Scale to measure the degree to which we appraise situations as stressful. By comparing your score against others tested in your age group, you are able to assess the amount of perceived stress in your life. Simply knowing you find your life uncontrollable or overloaded can be a trigger to seek help implementing positive lifestyle change.
26Factors Related to Stress TOOLS FOR HEALTHY LIVINGWays to manage and reduce stressExerciseRelaxBiofeedbackSocial SupportFaith, religion, and prayer