A Nation is NOT necessarily a Country. A NATION is a community of people, whose members are bound together by a sense of solidarity, and a common culture. A COUNTRY is a political community with set borders and the power to require obedience and loyalty from its citizens.
A nation-state is BOTH Def: a political organization within set borders and a community with a common culture, and a sense of unity But a community can be both a nation and a state
Types of Nationalism CharacteristicsExamples Unification Separation State- Building Types of Nationalism Bringing together culturally similar people who are separated by political borders -19th Century Italy and Germany Culturally different people who resist being added to a state -Greeks in the Ottoman Empire -French Canadians Culturally different people that want to join together and form a new culture and state -The U.S. (melting pot)
On the same piece of paper you wrote on earlier in class… 1.What is nationalism? 2.What did the Congress of Vienna do to the map of Europe? 3.How did nationalists feel about this? Why? 4.If we became part of Canada against our will and started a rebellion to break free, what type of nationalism would that be?
Zionism A movement founded to promote the establishment of a Jewish homeland in PalestineA movement founded to promote the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine Anti-Semitism, or discrimination against Jews, remained a huge problem in Europe in the 1800s and into the 1900s.Anti-Semitism, or discrimination against Jews, remained a huge problem in Europe in the 1800s and into the 1900s. The leader of the movement was Theodor HerzlThe leader of the movement was Theodor Herzl
Good Afternoon! 1.Please have your homework out (the packet of worksheets) on your desk 2.Also take a half-sheet of paper and a packet from the table 1.Please have your homework out (the packet of worksheets) on your desk 2.Also take a half-sheet of paper and a packet from the table
A) a strong leader with military experience B) a deep-spirited leader that inspires others with their words C) an intelligent leader with experience in international relations Do NOT write out the question. Just number 1-2 and write your answer. For number 2, just write the letter of your choice and then a sentence or two explanation. 1.How far would you be willing to go to unify your country (to what extreme)? 2. Which of the following leaders do you think would be most successful in unifying a nation and WHY?
What two modern European nations were not even nations in the middle of the 19 th Century?
Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872) “The Soul” Led a failed unification movement in 1848... from The Duties of Man “O my brothers, love your Country! Our country is our Home, the house that God has given us, placing therein a numerous family that loves us, and whom we love;
He was Sardinian King Victor Emmanuel II’s Prime MinisterHe was Sardinian King Victor Emmanuel II’s Prime Minister Cavour had a plan to unify northern ItalyCavour had a plan to unify northern Italy He made a secret agreement with Napoleon III He made a secret agreement with Napoleon III Count Camillo di Cavour (1805-1872) “The Brain”
Napoleon III promised to support Cavour in any war vs. Austria, as long as Austria attacked firstNapoleon III promised to support Cavour in any war vs. Austria, as long as Austria attacked first
Cavour’s armies defeated Austrians in the summer of 1859Cavour’s armies defeated Austrians in the summer of 1859 Meanwhile, in the Papal States and other parts of central Italy, revolts broke out as people aimed to overthrow their leaders and join Sardinia!Meanwhile, in the Papal States and other parts of central Italy, revolts broke out as people aimed to overthrow their leaders and join Sardinia!
Led a volunteer-army of Red Shirts, he marched up from the south, and kingdoms all along the way fell to his rebels. Guiseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882) “The Sword”
Garibaldi eventually met with Cavour and the king of SardiniaGaribaldi eventually met with Cavour and the king of Sardinia Garibaldi willingly stepped aside and let King Emmanuel II ruleGaribaldi willingly stepped aside and let King Emmanuel II rule
Prussia was mostly GermanPrussia was mostly German It had the strongest army in Central EuropeIt had the strongest army in Central Europe The Prussian king was Wilhelm IThe Prussian king was Wilhelm I
NO! Please may I have some money to build up a really cool army? Pretty please with a cherry on top? AHH Man! Hmmm…who else will help me with this…. Conservatives in Germany were known as JunkersConservatives in Germany were known as Junkers The Junker Wilhelm chose was Otto von BismarckThe Junker Wilhelm chose was Otto von Bismarck
Bismarck was a master of Realpolitik Realpolitik means doing whatever is necessary to reach your political goals without worrying about morality or idealism.
Blood and Iron Bismarck was not willing to wait for the liberals in Parliament to approve his budgetBismarck was not willing to wait for the liberals in Parliament to approve his budget “It is not by means of speeches and majority resolutions that the great issues of the day will be decided… but by blood and iron.“It is not by means of speeches and majority resolutions that the great issues of the day will be decided… but by blood and iron. Whatevs! I’m just taking the money.
"Politics is the art of the possible, the attainable… the art of the next best." "Laws are like sausages. It's better not to see them being made." "Better pointed bullets than pointed words." "Never believe in anything until it has been officially denied."
1862: Wilhelm appointed Bismarck Prime Minister Sure. I should have some time after I polish my sweet helmet! Hey man, I really need your help. Want to be Prime Minister and kick some parliament butt…
Before 1815: 39 states make up a German Confederation Austria dominated, but Prussia wanted unification
Danes, Prussians, and Austrians all wanted the same Danish land.Danes, Prussians, and Austrians all wanted the same Danish land. Bismarck convinced Austria to join with PrussiaBismarck convinced Austria to join with Prussia Denmark and Britain were humiliatedDenmark and Britain were humiliated
Bismarck provoked Austria into declaring war on Prussia.Bismarck provoked Austria into declaring war on Prussia.. Prussia had a secret alliance with Italy. Together, they defeated Austria in only 7 weeks (“7 weeks war”)Prussia had a secret alliance with Italy. Together, they defeated Austria in only 7 weeks (“7 weeks war”) Prussia took many German states from AustriaPrussia took many German states from Austria
Bismarck knew that he needed a war with France to win the last remaining German states. He released a telegram to the press that made it seem like Prussian King Wilhelm I was insulting France. France declared war on Prussia
This was known as the Ems Telegram "The Ems Telegram should have the desired effect of waving a red cape in front of the face of the Gallic [French] Bull." Prussia France Ems Telegram
French are defeated at the Battle of Sedan Napoleon III taken prisoner (+ 82,000 other Frenchmen)
"I am bored. The great things are done. The German Reich is made.”