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Nationalism The Unification of European Nations Or The Road to World War One.

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Presentation on theme: "Nationalism The Unification of European Nations Or The Road to World War One."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nationalism The Unification of European Nations Or The Road to World War One

2 Nationalism Nationalism is defined as pride in one’s country –Strong feelings for one’s country. –People who share a common language, history heritage. –Nationalism causes people to join together

3 Nationalism 6 bonds that unify a people –common religion –common language –common ethnicity or ancestry –common history –common land –common culture

4 Nationalism Good –Can work to bring people together. –Give people a common goal. –Pride or loyalty to one’s country. Bad –Can pull countries apart. –Can cause revolts and wars within the country. –Extreme nationalism can cause world wars because one country feels it is better then another.

5 Nationalism Nation-state –When the nation has it’s own independent government.

6 Nationalism Nationalism can be like a bomb and split nations apart –Russia –Ottoman Empire –Austro-Hungarian These nations/empires controlled vast numbers of different ethnic groups who wanted self government.

7 Nationalism Nationalism can be like a magnet and bring people together to create nation- states. Places like Italy and Germany

8 Italy and Nationalism After the fall of the Roman Empire Italy had been a nation of small states. Napoleon united Italy into the Kingdom of Italy. The Congress of Vienna redivided Italy and placed Italy under the rule of Austria. Italy continued to remain a country of small feudal states

9 Italian Unification In 1849 the King of Sardinia Victor Emmanuel II and Count Camillo Cavour began to work for Italian unification

10 The Three Leaders of Italy Count Camillo Cavour –Used alliances with Prussia and France to drive out the Austrians.

11 Italian Unification Cavour used the rivalry between Austria and France to start a war between both countries Cavour sided Italy with France and together Italy and France drove the Austrians out of northern Italy by 1859 Northern Italy was turned over to the Italians

12 The Three Leaders of Italy Giuseppe Mazzini –Formed the Young Italy Movement in –Was exiled for his views. –His writing and speeches inspired other nationalist.

13 The Three Leaders of Italy Giuseppe Garibaldi –Lead forces (Red Shirts) which helped control the north and south of Italy.

14 Italian Unification In the south Garibaldi started a revolutionary movement to drive the Spanish out of Italy Garibaldi’s followers known as Red Shirts began attacking the Spanish in Sicily In 1860 the Red Shirts and Garibaldi had driven the Spanish out of Italy Finally in 1870 the French withdrew from Italy leaving it a newly unified country

15 Italian Unification By 1861 most of Italy was unified Victory Emmanuel II became king of the newly unified Italy

16 German Nationalism

17 Germany and Nationalism Most Germans lived in small states to which they felt loyalty. The German region had not been unified since the decline of Charlemagne’s Holy Roman Empire Nationalist called for a unified Germany.

18 Germany and Nationalism The Rise of Prussia –Prussia establishes itself as the strongest of the German states. –Bismarck is appointed Chancellor of Prussia –Prussia wanted to unify the German regions into a powerful nation-state to compete against other European nations

19 Germany and Nationalism Otto von Bismarck –Strong political leader –Did not believe in nationalism but saw unification as a way to make the King of Prussia the King of Germany.

20 Germany and Nationalism Realpolitik –Bismarck’s idea of politics. –Means “the politics of reality” –Tough power politics with no room for ideals –No friends, don’t trust anyone.

21 Germany and Nationalism Blood and Iron –Bismarck believed that the only way to unify Germany was through “blood and iron” or war. –In 7 years Prussia fought 3 wars

22 Franco-Prussian War Franco-Prussian War 1870 Used nationalism and hatred against France and Napoleon to invade France. Bismarck and the Prussian formed an alliance with the Catholic states along the French boarder to stop French aggression In 1870 Bismarck provokes a war with France and France declares war on Prussia The Catholic states now become unified under Prussia in a effort to fight the war By 1871 the Prussian win the war Prussia gains land from France. Germany is unified

23 Germany and Nationalism In 1871 the German states unite under the Prussian king William I. William calls himself Kaiser which means emperor.

24 Results of German Nationalism Germany quickly industrialized and became a world power Germany quickly developed a strong army and navy Germany further began to colonize in Africa and Asia By 1888 Bismarck was out favor with the socialist In 1890 William II dismissed Bismarck By 1914 Germany felt it was strong enough to handle any European power.

25 Zionism Anti-Semitism –Hatred of the Jews In 73 CE the Jews had be exiled from their homeland in Palestine/Israel by the Romans. This was called the Diaspora. Jews had to find other places to lived and many moved into Europe The Jews had no homeland or country to call their own

26 Zionism Some countries in Eastern Europe began to expel and in some cases even murder their Jewish populations. As Anti-Semitism grew Jews knew they needed to find their own homeland

27 Zionism Jews began buying property in Palestine from Arab landholders They organized into farming Communities In 1896 a Jewish Journalist Theodor Herzl witnessed the horrors of Anti- Semitism in France and called for Jews to from their own nation state

28 Zionism Herzl’s movement was called Zionism It was devoted to creating an independent nation state in Palestine In 1947 the nation state of Israel was created


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