Presentation on theme: "Qualitative Data Analysis : An Introduction Carol Grbich Chapter. 7 Phenomenology."— Presentation transcript:
Qualitative Data Analysis : An Introduction Carol Grbich Chapter. 7 Phenomenology
Phenomenology Phenomenology involves exploring, in depth, experiences or texts to clarify their essences There are several different forms of Phenomenology: Classical/realistic/transcendental; Existential Hermeneutic Heuristic
Classical Phenomenology – Edmund Husserl Seeks the structures of the world and how people act and react to them, eg. the structure of consciousness, intentionality and essences in an external world how objects are constituted in pure consciousness and how these constitutions can be identified through processes of phenomenological reduction.
Phenomenological reduction (bracketing) identify the phenomena or object identify a recent experience of your own of this phenomena in terms of how it appeared to you take certain features of this experience and develop variations on aspects of this bracketed experience and then delete these from the object continue this process until you arrive at the essence or essential features of the object
Bracketing detail (1) Ask more specific questions about your knowledge of and attitudes (What do I think of this? What do I think this experience would be like?) Move back, remove all theoretical perspectives, symbols and constructs and your preconceived ideas, experiences and feelings re the topic under research Prepare to confront the phenomenon with a blank sheet, rather like taking the position of an alien from a distant planet Focus on the phenomenon and become open and passive Set reasoning aside Listen carefully and allow yourself to be drawn in, in a sustained and receptive manner
Bracketing detail (2) Document answers to the question: what does the experience appear to be now? Examine this description, : Does it arise from my own experiences or from past knowledge or my reading? All aspects which can be seen to have come from other sources must be abandoned. Locate the experiences’ essence and identify and critique the essences’ elements. Ask yourself the question: Would the phenomenon still stand without any of these? Negotiate the essences’ elements with those observed/interviewed. (Adapted from Crotty, 1996:158-159
Data collection Interview with open ended questions seeking experiences. Return several times to seek clarification of issues or to explore potential aspects which are becoming illuminated Observe (bathe in the experience as it occurs – observing the human experiences both of yourself and of others) Include documentation e.g. literature, poetry, biography, material culture etc. (seek perspectives of others regarding these texts, meanwhile recording your own understandings and experiences) Identify and deconstruct discourses
Data analysis Bracket out your own experiences Enter a dialogue with individual participants (or engage with an existing text) Reflect on what you have gained through reading and journaling your thoughts Identify the major themes from the narratives/texts using processes of preliminary data analysis and/or thematic analysis
Data analysis detail (1) Stage 1: ideographic mode (the gathering of closely connected ideas, words or concepts) construct a ‘research key’ of categories from each transcript and subcategories related to the research question. This key will be expanded as more transcripts are perused. isolate ‘natural meaning units’ – phrases with a single meaning and number these according to categories in the research key select themes which are central to the experiences of participants - write a phenomenological comment on each central theme write a succinct sub narrative of the individual’s experience of the phenomenon and relate it to the interpretive themes selected.
Data analysis detail (2) Stage 2; nomothetic mode (the search for abstract principles) collate sub -narratives and interpretive themes and use concept maps to to indicate interconnections around the phenomenon being researched rank interpretive themes in order of importance (frequency x intensity) and group meta themes and subthemes identify explicative themes (those which appear to have a primary referential character) using bracketing of your own thoughts and biases followed by creative writing through ‘free variation’ to multiply possibilities creatively write using your own embodied experience of the phenomena together with information from the literature to enhance phenomenological description of interpretive themes key to the phenomena. (adapted from Devinish, 2002: 5-6)
Existential Phenomenology; Sartre, Heidegger, Merleau Ponty. Consciousness is a separate entity People are immersed in their life worlds Phenomenological reduction is not desired Movement from abstract to the real – the meanings for being must be uncovered first Husserl’s movement in classical phenomenology is from the real to the abstract.
Hermeneutic Phenomenology : Heidegger, Gadamer, Ricoeur & Van Manen Investigates the interpretive structures of experiences of individuals or texts The interpretive focus is from the outside - from the perspective of the ‘objective’ researcher, or from the inside - with a focus on interaction between the interpreter and text The integration of part and whole in terms of overall interpretation is essential. ‘being’ (existence) is the overarching hidden aspect which becomes evident via the activities of ‘beings’ (individuals). Bracketing does not occur but a reflective journal is kept Co-construction of the data between researcher and respondent occurs and that the outcome involves a continuous conversation.
Heuristic Phenomenology : Moutsakas 1. 1. Become one with the research question through self awareness and self knowledge involving; self dialogue ( ones own experiences), tacit knowing (that which lies beneath intuition), intuition (that which is between explicit and tacit knowledge), indwelling (going inwards for a deeper understanding), focusing (on the central meaning of the experience ) and examination of the internal reference frames (created from knowledge and experience).
Heuristic Phenomenology : Moutsakas 2. 2. Immersion: the researcher becomes totally involved in the world of data 3. Incubation: intense concentration on knowledge expansion through increased awareness, intuitive or tacit insights and understanding 4. Illumination: active knowing to expand understanding of the experience through a breakthrough 5. Explication: reflective actions and comprehensive depiction of core themes 6. Creative synthesis: bring together and display data creatively to show patterns and relationships