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Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright © 2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Slide 1 Chapter 7 Collecting Qualitative Data.

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Presentation on theme: "Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright © 2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Slide 1 Chapter 7 Collecting Qualitative Data."— Presentation transcript:

1 Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright © 2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Slide 1 Chapter 7 Collecting Qualitative Data

2 Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright © 2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Slide 2 Key Ideas 4 Gaining site permission 4 Purposive sampling 4 Types of qualitative data 4 Protocols and Issues regarding administering and recording qualitative

3 Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright © 2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Slide 3 Gaining Permission 4 Gain permission from Institutional Review Board 4 Gain permission from “gatekeepers” at the research site –Gatekeeper: individual at the site who provides site access, helps researcher locate people and identifies places to study –The gatekeeper may require written permission about the project

4 Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright © 2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Slide 4 Information for the gatekeeper 4 Why their site was chosen 4 What time and resources are required 4 What will be accomplished at the site 4 What potential there is for your presence to be disruptive 4 What individuals at the site will gain from the study 4 How will use use and report the results

5 Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright © 2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Slide 5 Differences Between Random and Purposeful Sampling Random “Quantitative” Sampling Select Representative individuals To generalize from sample to population To make claims about the population To build/test “theories” that explain the population Purposeful “Qualitative” Sampling Select people/sites who can best help us understand our phenomenon To develop detailed understanding That might be “useful: information That might help people “learn” about the phenomenon That might give voice to “silenced” people

6 Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright © 2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Slide 6 Types of Purposeful Sampling When Does Sampling Occur? Before Data Collection After Data Collection has started What is the intent? To develop many perspectives Extreme Case Sampling To describe particularly troublesome or enlightening cases Typical Sampling To describe what is “typical” to those unfamiliar with the case What is the intent? To take advantage of whatever case unfolds Opportunistic Sampling To locate people or sites to study Snowball Sampling To explore confirming or disconfirming cases Confirming/ Disconfirming Sampling Maximal Variation Sampling To generate a theory or concept Theory or Concept Sampling To describe some sub-group in depth Homogenous Sampling To describe a case that illustrates “dramatically” the situation Theory or Concept Sampling

7 Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright © 2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Slide 7 Types of data to Collect 4 Observations 4 Interviews 4 Documents 4 Audio-Visual Materials

8 Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright © 2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Slide 8 Types of Data to Collect: Observations 4 An Observation is the process of gathering first-hand information by observing people and places at a research site. 4 Observational roles –Participant observer –Non-Participant observer 4 Observational roles can be changed

9 Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright © 2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Slide 9 Types of Data to Collect: Observations 4 Conduct multiple observations 4 Record both descriptive and reflective field notes during the observation –Descriptive field notes describe the events, activities and people –Reflective field notes record personal reflections that relate to their insights, hunches or broad themes that emerge

10 Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright © 2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Slide 10 Administering and Recording Data: Observational Protocols 4 The header: essential information about the interview 4 Left column to record descriptive notes 4 Right column to record reflective notes 4 A picture of the site may be sketched

11 Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright © 2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Slide 11 Structured, Unstructured, and Semi-Structured Interviews Approach to Data Collection Type of Response Options to Questions Types of Interviews Leading to Data Quantitative Close- Ended Structured/ semi-structured Interviews Scores to answers Quantitative Close- Ended Unstructured Interviews Transcription of words

12 Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright © 2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Slide 12 Types of Data to Collect: Interviews 4 Types of Interviews –Individual –Focus group –Telephone –

13 Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright © 2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Slide 13 Types of Data to Collect: Interviews 4 General open-ended questions are asked –allows the participant to create options for responding –participants can voice their experiences and perspectives 4 Information is recorded then transcribed for analysis

14 Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright © 2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Slide 14 Administering and Recording Data: Interview Protocols 4 The header: essential information about the interview 4 Open-ended questions include –“ice-breaker” –ones that address major research questions –probes that clarify and elaborate 4 Closing comments thanking the participant

15 Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright © 2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Slide 15 Types of Data to Collect: Documents 4 Public and private records 4 Good source for text data 4 You must obtain permission before using documents 4 Optically scan documents when possible

16 Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright © 2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Slide 16 Types of Data to Collect: Audio- Visual Materials 4 Determine the material that can provide evidence to address your research questions 4 Determine if the material is available and obtain permission to use it 4 Check the accuracy and authenticity of the material if you do not record it yourself 4 Collect the data and organize it

17 Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright © 2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Slide 17 Administering and Recording Data: Field Issues 4 Time needed for data collection –Limit initial collection or one or two observations or interviews –Time is needed to establish a substantial data base

18 Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright © 2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Slide 18 Administering and Recording Data: Field Issues 4 Obtaining permission to use materials 4 Ethical issues –Anonymity of participants –Convey true purpose of study without deception


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