Presentation on theme: "Phenomenology & Grounded Theory"— Presentation transcript:
1Phenomenology & Grounded Theory Qualitative Research Methods
2Phenomenology History First used by Johann Heinrich Lambert - Later used by Immanuel Kant and Johann Gottlieb FichteMade popular in 1807 in G. W. F. Hegel’s book titled Phänomenologie des Geistes (usually translated as Phenomenology of Spirit)
3Phenomenology History Edmund Husserl ( ) later refined the meaning into more of what we use today.- Phenomena can be studied only subjectively, not objectively—thus phenomenology is a close cousin of existentialism
4Phenomenology Defining Phenomenology: the study of structures of experience, or consciousness- study of “phenomena”: appearances of things, or things as they appear in our experience, or the ways we experience things, thus the meanings things have in our experience
5Phenomenology Defining Phenomenology: A philosophy or method of inquiry based on the premise that reality consists of objects and events as they are perceived or understood in human consciousness and not of anything independent of human consciousness.
6Phenomenology Defining Phenomenology: the study of people’s conscious experience of their life-world, that is, their “everyday life and social action”(Schram, 2003, p. 71)
7Phenomenology Assumption There are essence(s) in shared experience(s) that are the core meanings understood through a phenomon commonly experiences.
8Phenomenology Assumption 1. Researchers must depict that essence or basic structure of experiencea. Must suspend prior knowledge & beliefs- helps heighten consciousness
11Phenomenology Five Orientations 1) Transcendental constitutive phenomenology studies how objects are constituted in pure or transcendental consciousness, setting aside questions of any relation to the natural world around us.
12Phenomenology Orientation (2) Naturalistic constitutive phenomenology studies how consciousness constitutes or takes things in the world of nature, assuming with the natural attitude that consciousness is part of nature.
13Phenomenology Five Orientations (3) Existential phenomenology studies concrete human existence, including our experience of free choice or action in concrete situations.
14Phenomenology Five Orientations (4) Generative historicist phenomenology studies how meaning, as found in our experience, is generated in historical processes of collective experience over time.
15Phenomenology Five Orientations (5) Genetic phenomenology studies the genesis of meanings of things within one's own stream of experience.
16Phenomenology Orientation (6) Hermeneutical phenomenology studies interpretive structures of experience, how we understand and engage things around us in our human world, including ourselves and others.
17Phenomenology Orientation (7) Realistic phenomenology studies the structure of consciousness and intentionality, assuming it occurs in a real world that is largely external to consciousness and not somehow brought into being by consciousness.
18Phenomenology Characteristics Emphasizes a focus on people's subjective experiences and interpretations of the world2. Sometimes considered a school of thought or philosophical perspective
19Phenomenology Characteristics Wants to understand how the world appears to others4. Analysis of experience
20Phenomenology 5 Methods/Approaches 1. Describe a type of experience just as we find it in our own (past) experience.2. Interpret a type of experience by relating it to relevant features of context3. Analyze the form of a type of experience
21Phenomenology 5 Methods/Approaches 4. Logico-semantic model: specify the truth conditions for a type of thinking or the satisfaction conditions for a type of intention- i.e., Bears hibernate in the winter- i.e.,I intend to get an A in this class
22Phenomenology 5 Methods/Approaches 5. Neurophenomenology: assumes that conscious experience is grounded in neural activity in embodied action in appropriate surroundings- mixes phenomenology with biological and physical science
23Phenomenology Interviewing Steps 1. Explore your own experiences & set aside your opinions/judgmentsepoche: Greek word meaning to refrain from judgment/set them aside
24Phenomenology Interviewing Steps 2. Bracket judgments and everyday understandings in order to examine consciousness itself3. Phenomenological reduction: revisiting the experience to derive the inner structure/meaning in and of itself
25Phenomenology Interviewing Steps 4. Horizontalization: laying out all the data and analyzing it equally- no one thing is more important5. Organize into clusters or themes
26Phenomenology Interviewing Steps 6. Imaginative variation: viewing the data from multiple perspectives- seeing different things from different angles
27Phenomenology Interviewing Steps 7. The end product should be “a composite description that presents the “essence” of the phenomenon, called the essential, invariant structure”(Cresswell, 2007, p. 62)
28Phenomenology Interviewing Steps 7. The end product should be “a composite description that presents the “essence” of the phenomenon, called the essential, invariant structure”(Cresswell, 2007, p. 62)