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Russia 900-1917 Soviet Union (USSR) 1917-1991 Russia 1991-present.

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Presentation on theme: "Russia 900-1917 Soviet Union (USSR) 1917-1991 Russia 1991-present."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Russia Soviet Union (USSR) Russia 1991-present

3 True or False about Lech Walesa T or F fought the Germans in WWII T or F lost his job as a result of organizing ship workers to go on strike T or F founded the anti-communist political group Solidarity T or F Solidarity was a pretty small group of only about 1,000 workers T or F Walesa organized strikes all over Poland T or F was an Atheist because he was raised in a communist country T or F a new general was made leader of Poland and arrested Walesa T or F Walesa won the Nobel Peace prize for organizing non violent protests T or F seeing all the strikes Russian dictator Mikhail Gorbachev sent Russian tanks in to stop the protests T or F eventually Poland had democratic elections and Poland got rid of communism T or F in 1989 a KGB sniper assassinated Walesa while he was campaigning in Poland T or F Walesa was eventually elected president of Poland

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6 Soviet Control over Eastern Europe A Communist govt was forced on countries A Communist govt was forced on countries NO free speech NO free speech Govt. controlled media Govt. controlled media No foreign newspapers/tv No foreign newspapers/tv Govt take over of land and businesses (collectivization) Govt take over of land and businesses (collectivization) Factories must produce what govt wants (tanks not nice clothes) Factories must produce what govt wants (tanks not nice clothes) Stores are empty Stores are empty Govt waiting list to buy a car Govt waiting list to buy a car Persecuted religion Persecuted religion Secret police arrest thousands(fear) Secret police arrest thousands(fear) Barbed wire keeps people from leaving Barbed wire keeps people from leaving Massive pollution, destroying rivers because govt controls media Massive pollution, destroying rivers because govt controls media FEAR – that if you protest Russian troops will invade FEAR – that if you protest Russian troops will invade

7 After WWII Stalin’s armies stayed in the countries of eastern Europe and rigged elections to make sure that all of them had Communist governments After WWII Stalin’s armies stayed in the countries of eastern Europe and rigged elections to make sure that all of them had Communist governments

8 Prague, Czechoslovakia 1968 Hungary 1956 Poland 1980s

9 Warsaw Pact: The USSR and Countries of Eastern Europe’s alliance against NATO The USSR and Countries of Eastern Europe’s alliance against NATO Formed in 1955 Formed in 1955 Basically Stalin’s response to NATO Basically Stalin’s response to NATO

10 Nikita Krushchev 3 rd dictator of USSR (after Lenin and Stalin – died in 1953) 3 rd dictator of USSR (after Lenin and Stalin – died in 1953) Was leader for Sputnik, 1 st man in space, built the Berlin Wall Was leader for Sputnik, 1 st man in space, built the Berlin Wall Put Missiles in Cuba Put Missiles in Cuba

11 WARSAW Pact: WARSAW Pact: An alliance of An alliance of Eastern European Eastern European countries countries and USSR. and USSR. To form To form strength strength against against NATO NATO

12 Hungary 1956

13 After losing the Cuban Missile Crisis to JFK Nikita Khrushchev fell out of favor with the USSR After losing the Cuban Missile Crisis to JFK Nikita Khrushchev fell out of favor with the USSR Leonid Breshnev then became the next dictator of USSR Leonid Breshnev then became the next dictator of USSR

14 Quote from Brezhnev Doctrine “When internal and external forces hostile to socialism(communism) attempt to turn the development of any socialist country in the direction of capitalism…..it becomes a threat to all socialist countries” “When internal and external forces hostile to socialism(communism) attempt to turn the development of any socialist country in the direction of capitalism…..it becomes a threat to all socialist countries”

15 1.Lenin, 2.Stalin, 3.Krushchev, 4.Breshnev 5.Andropov, 6.Chernenko, 7.Gorbachev

16 LAST Boris Yeltsin Russia not USSR Czars

17 Prague (Czechoslovakia) Spring 1968 Again, Russia rolls in the tanks Again, Russia rolls in the tanks Prague, Czech

18 Hungary? bothPrague? Wanted to leave Warsaw Pact Wanted to leave Warsaw Pact Demonstrated for democracy and free speech Demonstrated for democracy and free speech Krushchev had to deal with Krushchev had to deal with Alexander Dubcek Alexander Dubcek Tanks rolled in and shot people Tanks rolled in and shot people Breshznev dealt with Breshznev dealt with people were killed 72 people were killed Leader was just removed Leader was just removed Thought America might get involved Thought America might get involved Said that they would stay communist just wanted more freedom Said that they would stay communist just wanted more freedom Imre Nagy Imre Nagy Said wouldn’t leave Warsaw Pact Said wouldn’t leave Warsaw Pact Over 4,000 killed Over 4,000 killed Less violent- protesters with flowers Less violent- protesters with flowers The movement was crushed The movement was crushed leader was executed leader was executed

19 Similarities between Hungary and Prague

20 And if you mess with Russia Today

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22 Stores Capitalist country Capitalist country Communist country (Cuba) Communist country (Cuba)

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29 Churchill’s reference to the “Iron Curtain” From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an " iron curtain " has descended across the Continent. From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an " iron curtain " has descended across the Continent.StettinBalticTriesteAdriaticStettinBalticTriesteAdriatic Definition: a curtain or wall of barbed wire and guards that stop anyone in eastern Europe from leaving and going to the west Definition: a curtain or wall of barbed wire and guards that stop anyone in eastern Europe from leaving and going to the west

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31 Russia/ SOVIET UNION

32 Factors that helped kill communism and the Soviet Union

33 Russia had huge financial problems Russia had huge financial problems

34 US President Ronald Reagan was massively building our military and USSR couldn’t keep up

35 Afghanistan: The Soviets had been fighting an expensive 10 year battle to take Afghanistan

36 Alcoholism Alcoholism was affecting work production and Alcoholism was affecting work production and The quality of The quality of Russian goods Russian goods

37 There was little demand for Russian goods

38 Mikhail Gorbachev: the last communist dictator of the Soviet Union To help his struggling country Gorbachev introduced some new policies To help his struggling country Gorbachev introduced some new policies Glasnost: open, uncensored discussion about problems in the Soviet Union Glasnost: open, uncensored discussion about problems in the Soviet Union Perestroika: a restructuring of the soviet economy that allows some capitalism and local control Perestroika: a restructuring of the soviet economy that allows some capitalism and local control

39 INF Treaty (Intermediate –Range Nuclear Forces) The INF Treaty was a treaty signed by Gorbachev and Reagan in 1987 The Treaty eliminated all ground-launched nuclear missiles in Europe Question: why was Gorbachev looking for arms reduction agreements with the US?

40 1. 2. Was Gorbachev Responsible? not at all – some- lots 1. Did it hurt the Soviet Union and its control over Eastern Europe? Yes/No 2. Was Gorbachev Responsible? not at all – some- lots Perestroika? Perestroika? Arms treaty with the US? Arms treaty with the US? Glasnost? Glasnost? Hollywood movies? Hollywood movies? Russian war in Afghanistan? Russian war in Afghanistan? Secret police/ Censorship? Secret police/ Censorship? The arms race with the US? The arms race with the US? Communist party officials getting better homes and food than non communist members Communist party officials getting better homes and food than non communist members Free health care Free health care Gorbachev saying that he would not get involved in Eastern European affairs? Gorbachev saying that he would not get involved in Eastern European affairs? Vodka? Vodka?

41 Leonid Brezhnev USSR’s 4 th dictator after Khrushchev USSR’s 4 th dictator after Khrushchev Served from Served from Crushed rebellions in Czechoslovakia Crushed rebellions in Czechoslovakia Invaded Afghanistan Invaded Afghanistan

42 Prague (Czechoslovakia) Spring 1968 Again, Russia rolls in the tanks Again, Russia rolls in the tanks Prague, Czech

43 1.Lenin, 2.Stalin, 3.Krushchev, 4.Breshnev 5.Andropov, 6.Chernenko, 7.Gorbachev

44 SDI – Strategic Defense Initiative SDI: “Star Wars” SDI: “Star Wars”

45 In the 1980s Polish citizens protested for Reform In the 1980s Polish citizens protested for Reform The Communist dictator asked Russia for help The Communist dictator asked Russia for help But Gorbachev had already explained in a speech, But Gorbachev had already explained in a speech, “ there must be no interference from the outside. Each society (country) must choose its own path” “ there must be no interference from the outside. Each society (country) must choose its own path” Question: What message did this speech send to all the countries of Eastern Europe? Question: What message did this speech send to all the countries of Eastern Europe?

46 Directions for the activity: 1. respect the REGULATOR 1. respect the REGULATOR Regulator’s job: keep on task – make sure everyone shares Regulator’s job: keep on task – make sure everyone shares 2. Read the event aloud 2. Read the event aloud 3. Discuss each reason – (regulator make sure each group member shares) 3. Discuss each reason – (regulator make sure each group member shares) 4. everyone must write his/her own answer 4. everyone must write his/her own answer 5. be prepared to answer my questions at the end (I’m going to call on random people to check for understanding) 5. be prepared to answer my questions at the end (I’m going to call on random people to check for understanding)

47 HEADPACKER Activity (SUMMARY Question) Complete the Following: Complete the Following: 1. Detail 3 or more reasons communism declined and Russian control over Eastern Europe began to collapse 1. Detail 3 or more reasons communism declined and Russian control over Eastern Europe began to collapse

48 Poland

49 Unions: A labor union: large groups of workers banding together to create negotiating power against the power that be. A labor union: large groups of workers banding together to create negotiating power against the power that be. Unions bargain for benefits like more pay, or better working conditions Unions bargain for benefits like more pay, or better working conditions They negotiate labor contracts (Collective bargaining) with employers. This may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring, firing and promotion of workers, benefits, workplace safety and policies. They negotiate labor contracts (Collective bargaining) with employers. This may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring, firing and promotion of workers, benefits, workplace safety and policies. They negotiate labor contractsCollective bargaining They negotiate labor contractsCollective bargaining

50 in the summer of 1980 strikes broke out all over Poland with thousands of people protesting against the communist government

51 Solidarity Many different unions joined together to form Solidarity: Solidarity was the biggest and most influential labor union in the Polish Revolution to get rid of communism.

52 Lech Walesa The man who broke the Iron Curtain The Leader of Solidarity was an electrician named Lech Walesa The Leader of Solidarity was an electrician named Lech Walesa

53 Atheist: NO God materialist- everything is “matter” there’s no soul –no heaven-no God Atheist: NO God materialist- everything is “matter” there’s no soul –no heaven-no God AGNOSTIC: Just don’t know AGNOSTIC: Just don’t know Karl Marx had written that Karl Marx had written that “religion is the opiate of the masses” “religion is the opiate of the masses” In other words; religion was a drug to make people forget their worldly problems. In other words; religion was a drug to make people forget their worldly problems. People need to be stirred up, mad want Revolution People need to be stirred up, mad want Revolution Most communists were atheists Most communists were atheists Believers were heavily persecuted Believers were heavily persecuted Closed and destroyed churches Closed and destroyed churches Thousands of priests sent to concentration camps or shot Thousands of priests sent to concentration camps or shot Brainwashed kids Brainwashed kids Against the law to teach kids about God Against the law to teach kids about God Anti- religious posters Anti- religious posters “Red” weddings/funerals “Red” weddings/funerals

54 over 9 million people (1/3 of Poland's population ) joined this union Because communism taught atheism Poland held strongly to their religion the union was allied with the Catholic Church Their tactics were non violent Polish Pope John Paul II visited Poland many times to support the movement

55 Frustrated, Communists put General Jaruzelski in charge of the country The General put the country under Martial Law (rule by the military) He banned Solidarity He arrested Lech Walesa and 10,000 others He had the Russian military do training exercises on the Polish border as a threat He had his soldiers open fire on protesters doing a non violent demonstration Secret police killed Poland’s top priest By the end of 1981 he had put 150,000 people in custody for 'revolutionary activities'

56 After years of protests and negotiations with communist officials After years of protests and negotiations with communist officials Solidarity negotiated the right for free (not communist controlled) elections Solidarity negotiated the right for free (not communist controlled) elections Many ‘Solidarity’ members were elected to parliament Many ‘Solidarity’ members were elected to parliament This Parliament voted communism out and passed laws like free speech and freedom of religion This Parliament voted communism out and passed laws like free speech and freedom of religion It also Elected Walesa president It also Elected Walesa president

57 Why do workers sometimes go on strike? Why do workers sometimes go on strike? How do strikes hurt industry? How do strikes hurt industry? What would happen if only 25 people went on strike? What would happen if only 25 people went on strike? What would happen in over a million people went on strike? What would happen in over a million people went on strike? What was “Solidarity’? What was “Solidarity’? Why do you think Pope John Paul was always going to the rallies in Poland? Why do you think Pope John Paul was always going to the rallies in Poland? Why was a military general put in charge of Poland? Why was a military general put in charge of Poland? Why didn’t Gorbachev step in and stop the Polish movements? Why didn’t Gorbachev step in and stop the Polish movements? What eventually happened in Poland? What eventually happened in Poland?

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59 Hungary Following Poland's lead, Their parliament adopted legislation providing for multi-party parliamentary elections and a direct presidential election. Hungary also decides to open its borders and let people freely leave (communist countries had always kept people from leaving with barbed wire and machine guns) Following Poland's lead, Their parliament adopted legislation providing for multi-party parliamentary elections and a direct presidential election. Hungary also decides to open its borders and let people freely leave (communist countries had always kept people from leaving with barbed wire and machine guns)

60 East Germany After Hungary's reformist government opened its borders, a growing number of East Germans began emigrating to West Germany via Hungary's border with Austria. By the end of September 1989, more than 30,000 East Germans had escaped to the West. Thousands of East Germans also tried to reach the West by staging sit-ins at West German diplomatic facilities in other Eastern European capitals. The mass exodus generated demands within East Germany for political change. After Hungary's reformist government opened its borders, a growing number of East Germans began emigrating to West Germany via Hungary's border with Austria. By the end of September 1989, more than 30,000 East Germans had escaped to the West. Thousands of East Germans also tried to reach the West by staging sit-ins at West German diplomatic facilities in other Eastern European capitals. The mass exodus generated demands within East Germany for political change.West GermanyWest Germany

61 Fall of the Berlin Wall Under severe public pressure and opened parts of the Berlin Wall and other parts of their border with West Germany. Under severe public pressure and opened parts of the Berlin Wall and other parts of their border with West Germany. On November 9 th 1989 thousands had jammed packed Berlin and were taking hammers and knocking down the wall. East German officials did nothing to stop them On November 9 th 1989 thousands had jammed packed Berlin and were taking hammers and knocking down the wall. East German officials did nothing to stop them

62 1989

63 Czechoslovakia ‘Velvet Revolution’ After watching east Germany Czechs rallied in the streets to demand free elections. On November 17, 1989, a peaceful student demonstration in Prague was severely beaten back by the riot police. After watching east Germany Czechs rallied in the streets to demand free elections. On November 17, 1989, a peaceful student demonstration in Prague was severely beaten back by the riot police. November November By the end of November the number of peaceful protesters assembled in Prague had swelled from 200,000. By the end of November the number of peaceful protesters assembled in Prague had swelled from 200,000. The government eventually resigned ending communist rule. The government eventually resigned ending communist rule. Later, Czechs and Slovaks decided to break their country into two separate countries – Later, Czechs and Slovaks decided to break their country into two separate countries – The Czech Republic and the nation of Slovakia The Czech Republic and the nation of Slovakia

64 Romania Romania had been ruled by an iron-fisted dictator named Nicolai Ceausescu. Seeing all these reforms going on in other countries in Eastern Europe Ceausescu ordered a mass rally to show the strength of communism. However, to his shock, the crowd booed as he spoke. At first his security forces obeyed Ceausescu's orders to shoot the protesters, but on the morning of December 22nd, the Romanian military suddenly changed sides. Army tanks began moving towards the Central Committee building with crowds swarming alongside them. The rioters forced open the doors of the Communist offices in an attempt to get Ceausescu. The protesters eventually caught him. On Christmas Day, Romanian television showed the Ceausescu's facing a hasty trial, and then he and his wife were executed. Pictures of their dead bodies were broadcasted nation-wide. Communism was no more in Romania Romania had been ruled by an iron-fisted dictator named Nicolai Ceausescu. Seeing all these reforms going on in other countries in Eastern Europe Ceausescu ordered a mass rally to show the strength of communism. However, to his shock, the crowd booed as he spoke. At first his security forces obeyed Ceausescu's orders to shoot the protesters, but on the morning of December 22nd, the Romanian military suddenly changed sides. Army tanks began moving towards the Central Committee building with crowds swarming alongside them. The rioters forced open the doors of the Communist offices in an attempt to get Ceausescu. The protesters eventually caught him. On Christmas Day, Romanian television showed the Ceausescu's facing a hasty trial, and then he and his wife were executed. Pictures of their dead bodies were broadcasted nation-wide. Communism was no more in Romania

65 Tiananmen Square, Beijing, China 1989 In April 1989, over a million Chinese citizens gathered to protest for democratic reforms. For weeks they gave speeches asking for democracy and free speech – They even built a huge ‘goddess of democracy’ In June the Chinese Army moved in and killed thousands China did NOT Get rid of Communism

66 The break-up of the Soviet Union As mention before, when all these independence movements were going on in Eastern Europe and the Berlin Wall was coming down Gorbachev, the Soviet dictator, decided to not intervene. As mention before, when all these independence movements were going on in Eastern Europe and the Berlin Wall was coming down Gorbachev, the Soviet dictator, decided to not intervene. Because of this many of the Soviet republics (Ukraine, Lithuania, Kazakhstan, etc.) thought they’d try their chances at independence Because of this many of the Soviet republics (Ukraine, Lithuania, Kazakhstan, etc.) thought they’d try their chances at independence

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68 Lithuania 1991 In March 1990 the Soviet republic of Lithuania declared its independence from the Soviet Union. Gorbachev ordered a blockade of the region to starve them into staying. In January 1991 he ordered the army into Lithuania to put down pro democracy demonstrations. 14 were killed and more than 100 were wounded and Lithuania’s independence movement was crushed. In March 1990 the Soviet republic of Lithuania declared its independence from the Soviet Union. Gorbachev ordered a blockade of the region to starve them into staying. In January 1991 he ordered the army into Lithuania to put down pro democracy demonstrations. 14 were killed and more than 100 were wounded and Lithuania’s independence movement was crushed.

69 Boris Yeltsin After the Lithuania incident Boris Yeltsin a popular politician from Moscow denounced what Gorbachev did. The popular Yeltsin called on the Soviet Union to begin democratic and economic reforms After the Lithuania incident Boris Yeltsin a popular politician from Moscow denounced what Gorbachev did. The popular Yeltsin called on the Soviet Union to begin democratic and economic reforms

70 The August ‘Coup’ attempt Hard line communists and military leaders worried that Gorbachev was trying to end communist rule Hard line communists and military leaders worried that Gorbachev was trying to end communist rule So in August 1991 a group of military officers kidnapped Gorbachev, demanded his resignation and said that they were taking over the government So in August 1991 a group of military officers kidnapped Gorbachev, demanded his resignation and said that they were taking over the government

71 The ‘Coup’ attempt fails While Gorbachev was being held, all over the USSR people were in the streets protesting and demanding independence While Gorbachev was being held, all over the USSR people were in the streets protesting and demanding independence The hardline military officers ordered the army to break up the demonstrations and take control The hardline military officers ordered the army to break up the demonstrations and take control The army refused to shoot the demonstrators and the coup attempt failed because the army wouldn’t follow the orders of the hardline officers The army refused to shoot the demonstrators and the coup attempt failed because the army wouldn’t follow the orders of the hardline officers

72 Gorbachev resigns Seeing the dissatisfaction of the people, on Christmas day 1991 Gorbachev resigned Seeing the dissatisfaction of the people, on Christmas day 1991 Gorbachev resigned That same day the Soviet parliament voted to end the Soviet Union That same day the Soviet parliament voted to end the Soviet Union Within days all the soviet republics had declared their independence Within days all the soviet republics had declared their independence Boris Yeltsin was elected President of Russia not the Soviet Union Boris Yeltsin was elected President of Russia not the Soviet Union

73 Who was the last dictator of the Soviet Union? Who was the last dictator of the Soviet Union?

74 Break up of Yugoslavia: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia

75 LAST Boris Yeltsin Russia not USSR Czars


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