Soviet Leaders After Stalin After Stalin: Communist leaders were not as strict and allowed a little more freedom Satellite nations also got more freedom… as long as they stayed allied with the Soviet Union
Destalinization 1956: Khruschev criticized Stalin’s repressive actions Destalinization: getting rid of Stalin’s memory in the Soviet Union Supported “peaceful competition” with the West Problem: –Encouraged satellite nations to look for freedom from Soviet control.
1956: Hungary Hungarians protested against the Soviet- controlled government Imre Nagy formed a new government and promised democracy and an end to Soviet domination Should Hungary be allowed to have more freedom?
“From the youngest child to the oldest man, no one wants communism.”
The Soviet Response… The Soviets sent in tanks and troops crushed the uprising New government established Nagy executed
The Age of Brezhnev Khrushchev lost power in the USSR after the Cuban Missile Crisis Leonid Brezhnev brought back censorship and limited human rights within the USSR Brezhnev also would not allow any dissent (opposition) in the satellite nations
1968: Czechoslovakia Alexander Dubcek decreased censorship and strict government control Wanted “socialism with a human face” Prague Spring was a time of new ideas and new freedoms in Czechoslovakia
August 20 Warsaw Pact nations invaded to stop reforms.
The Brezhnev Doctrine Soviet Union has the right to prevent satellite nations from moving away from communism.
Soviet-Chinese Split Mao and Stalin signed 30-year friendship treaty in 1950 didn’t last China didn’t like having to take direction from the USSR. China wanted to spread its own communism in Africa and Asia. By 1960, they were no longer cooperating.
Brinkmanship (a reminder) Brinkmanship was the Cold War policy of lots of tension between the super-powers and a willingness to go to the “brink of war” 1970s relations got less tense What were the problems with brinkmanship? –Lots of scary moments when people thought nuclear war was really going to happen
Détente: The Cold War Thaws Began when Nixon was president of the US US moved toward better relations with the USSR and moving away from direct confrontation the US decided to be more flexible and practical with their actions Still supported containment, but two sides tried to get along better
Examples of Détente Nixon visits China! –1st US president to visit Communist China Nixon visits the USSR!! SALT begins (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) to get rid of nuclear weapons. SALT I—Nixon and Brezhnev agree to limit certain types of missiles Helsinki Accords (1975)—33 nations agree to work towards détente
It’s getting chilly again: Détente Falters Jimmy Carter worried about human rights abuses behind the iron curtain The Soviets invaded Afghanistan New SALT II treaty wasn’t ratified by US Congress China and India started to build nuclear weapons
Détente Failing Ronald Reagan elected in 1980 –VERY anti-communist Reagan increased defense spending Soviets felt they needed to do the same 1983: SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) --- to protect against enemy missiles (also known as “Star Wars” US support Contras in Nicaragua
A sign of hope… 1985: reformer Mikhail Gorbachev took power in the USSR