Soviet Leaders After Stalin Nikita Khrushchev 1953-1964 Leonid Brezhnev 1964-1982 Yuri Andropov 1982-1984 Konstantin Chernenko 1984-1985 Mikhail Gorbachev 1985-1991
Soviet Leaders After Stalin After Stalin: –Communist leaders were not as strict and allowed a little more freedom –Satellite nations also got more freedom… as long as they stayed allied with the USSR
Destalinization 1956: Khruschev criticized Stalin’s harsh actions He began Destalinization: getting rid of Stalin’s memory in the Soviet Union He supported “peaceful competition” with the West Problem: –Encouraged satellite nations to look for freedom from Soviet control.
1956: Hungary Hungarians protested against the Soviet- controlled government Imre Nagy formed a new government and promised democracy and an end to Soviet domination The USSR had to decide whether or not Hungary should be allowed to have more freedom.
The Soviet Response… The Soviets sent in tanks and troops crushed the uprising New government established Nagy executed
The Age of Brezhnev Khrushchev lost power in the USSR after the Cuban Missile Crisis Leonid Brezhnev brought back censorship and limited human rights within the USSR Brezhnev also would not allow any opposition in the satellite nations
1968: Czechoslovakia Alexander Dubcek decreased censorship and strict government control Wanted “socialism with a human face” Prague Spring was a time of new ideas and new freedoms in Czechoslovakia
August 20 Warsaw Pact nations invaded to stop reforms.
Brinkmanship (a reminder) Brinkmanship was the Cold War policy of lots of tension between the super-powers and a willingness to go to the “brink of war” What were the problems with brinkmanship? –Lots of scary moments when people thought nuclear war was really going to happen An example of Brinkmanship: __________
Détente: The Cold War Thaws Détente began when Richard Nixon was president of the US Détente means that the US and USSR were improving their relationship and moving away from direct confrontation The US still supported containment, but the two sides tried to get along better
Examples of Détente Nixon visits China! –1st US president to visit Communist China Nixon visits the USSR!! SALT begins (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) to get rid of nuclear weapons.
It’s getting chilly again: Détente Falters President Jimmy Carter worried about human rights abuses behind the iron curtain The Soviets invaded Afghanistan China and India started to build nuclear weapons
Détente Failing Ronald Reagan elected President of the US in 1980 –He was VERY anti-communist Reagan increased defense spending Soviets felt they needed to do the same 1983: US began SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) to protect against enemy missiles. It was also known as “Star Wars” US supported Contras in Nicaragua
A sign of hope… 1985: reformer Mikhail Gorbachev took power in the USSR