2DICTATORS THREATEN WORLD PEACE For many European countries the end of World War I was the beginning of revolutions at home, economic depression and the rise of powerful dictators driven by nationalism and territorial expansionTwo powerful 20th Century dictators were Stalin & Hitler
3Types of Government Dictatorship Totalitarian State Monarchy one person exercises absolute power and unrestricted control in a government without hereditary succession (meaning, not a king)Totalitarian Statea government which maintains complete control over its citizensindividuals have no rights, and government suppresses opposition.MonarchyJust like a dictatorship but rule is by an absolute ruler like a king
4Types of Government Democracy Communism “Rule by People” Government is controlled by its citizensCommunisma govermental system where economic and social activity is controlled by a totalitarian state dominated by a single political party.
5Types of Government Fascism Militarist State Political movement that consists of a strong, centralized government headed by a powerful dictator.Emphasizes the State over individuals.Allows private enterprise"Everything within the state, nothing against the state, nothing outside the state." The masses should only "believe, obey and fight." ~MussoliniMilitarist StateThe military is the controlling power in government
6FAILURE OF VERSAILLESThe peace settlement that ended World War I (Versailles Treaty) failed to provide a “just and secure peace” as promisedInstead Germany grew more and more resentful of the treaty that they felt was too harsh and too punitiveThe Versailles Treaty (above on crutches) took a beating in the U.S. and abroad
8Joseph Stalin – Soviet Union Lenin died in 1924, Stalin scrambled for control and took over the Soviet government by getting rid of his oppositionGoal: Make Russia a worldwide example for a Communist StateRid all private enterprise- Strip peasants from land, force them to work on collective government owned farms for wagesTransform from Rural to Industrial Power- Did this in record time, with multiple “5 year Plans”In order to accomplish these goals, sacrificedLarge human cost: an estimated 8 to 13 million killedVast Police StateHeavily punished for criticismGreat Purge of 1930sFamine because of new industrial focus
9STALIN MURDERS MILLIONS OF SOVIETS In his desire to purge (eliminate) anyone who threatened his power, Stalin was responsible for the deaths of 8 – 13 million of his own Soviet citizensMillions more died of famine caused by his economic policiesLabor camp workers in Siberia -- Stalin sent millions of political prisoners to labor camps
10TOTALITARIAN STATE By 1939, Stalin firmly established in the USSR In a totalitarian state the government suppresses all opposition and has strict control over the citizens who have no civil rightsIn totalitarian states citizens are expected to treat the dictator with adoration
11What Type of Government is STALIN running? 1 or Multi-party State?Answer: One Party StateWhat type of Government?TotalitarianDictatorshipCommunist
13Benito Mussolini - Italy 1919 advertised for War Veterans to fight politicians who were “destroying Italy.”Feared spread of communismMarched into Rome and got the Italian king’s permission to form a new governmentGoal – wanted to make Italy a world powerAchieved efficiency, but in process crushed all opposition
14THE RISE OF FASCISM IN ITALY While Stalin was consolidating his power in the Soviet Union, Benito Mussolini was establishing a totalitarian regime in ItalyMussolini seized power from King Emmanuel III during a coup d’ètat, taking advantage of high unemployment, inflation and a middle-class fear of Communism
15MUSSOLINI CREATES FASCIST PARTY Mussolini was a strong public speaker who appealed to Italian national prideBy 1921, Mussolini had established the Fascist Party and government -- Fascism stressed nationalism and militarism and placed the interest of the state above the interests of the individualBy 1928 he had consolidated power and established a dictatorship suppressing all opposition
16Mussolini’s FateAfter the Allies invaded Italy in July of 1945, Mussolini was forced from power and capturedMussolini was freed by German soldiers and taken to Germany to re-establish his governmentHe tried to set up a new government in Northern Italy but was captured by his own people and hanged upside down
17What Type of Government is MUSSOLINI running? 1 or Multi-party State?Answer: One Party StateWhat type of Government?TotalitarianDictatorshipFascist
18HIROHITO: EMPEROR OF JAPAN Emperor Hirohito’s reign lasted fromHirohito followed tradition and chose a name for his reign after inheriting the throne after the death of his father, Yoshihito.His reign was called "Showa", or "Radiating Peace“However, he began a military buildup with several attacks on China and a dream of Pacific domination and set up a militaristic government
20MILITANTS GAIN CONTROL OF JAPAN Halfway around the world, nationalistic leaders were seizing control of the Imperial government of JapanLike Hitler, they desired living space for their growing population
21JAPAN IN THE 1930sThe 1930s were years of fear in Japan, characterized by the resurgence of right-wing patriotism, the weakening of democratic forces, domestic terrorist violence (including an assassination attempt on the emperor in 1932), and stepped-up military aggression abroad
22Japanese soldiers in Manchuria JAPAN ATTACKS CHINAIn 1931, Japan attacked the Chinese province of ManchuriaSwiftly Japan captured the province which is roughly twice the size of TexasDuring the 1930s, the military established almost complete control over the government. Many political enemies were assassinated, and communists persecuted.People gave up will forgood of the governmentJapanese soldiers in Manchuria
23Japanese MilitaristsGoal – Increase living space for growing Japanese populationMilitarists launched surprise invasion of Manchuria in 1931, controlling this resource-rich land within several monthsLeague of nations condemned Japan, who simply quit the leagueSuccess of the Invasion put the militarists in control of Japan
24What Type of Government are the Japanese Militarists running? 1 or Multi-party State?Answer: One Party StateWhat type of Government?TotalitarianMilitarism
26Francisco Franco - Spain Military leader in Spain, in 1936 led a revolt against Spain’s elected party in power called the Popular Front.Franco’s nationalist party won Spanish Civil warAfter winning in 1939, his rule was law.All opposition was ruthlessly dealt with; the nation had to endure the activities of a secret police forceFair elections and political opposition were not toleratedIn July 1947, a law was passed that made Franco head of state for life.
27SPANISH LOYALIST AT THE INSTANT OF DEATH by Robert Capra, 1936 CIVIL WAR IN SPAINIn 1936, a group of Spanish army officers led by General Francisco Franco, rebelled against the Spanish RepublicA Civil War ensued as Hitler and Mussolini supported Franco’s fascists while the western democracies remained neutralSPANISH LOYALIST AT THE INSTANT OF DEATH by Robert Capra, 1936
28Francisco FrancoFrancisco Franco took control of Spain in 1937 and became dictator, setting up a fascist government. Italy and Germany supplied him with military support needed to win control of the country. However, during the second world war, Spain stayed neutral. During WW II, he used secret police to ruthlessly deal with any opposition.
29What Type of Government is FRANCO running? 1 or Multi-party State?Answer: One Party StateWhat type of Government?TotalitarianDictatorshipFascist
31HITLER GAINS FOLLOWING Adolf Hitler’s ability as a public speaker and organizer drew many followersHe quickly became the Nazi Party leaderCalling himself “Der Fuhrer” (the leader) he promised to return Germany to its old glory
32NAZIS TAKE OVER GERMANY Meanwhile in Germany, Adolf Hitler followed a similar path to Mussolini and set up a fascist state in GermanyAt the end of WWI he was a jobless soldier drifting around GermanyIn 1919, he joined a struggling group called the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazis)(Despite its name the party had no ties to socialism)Hitler, far left, shown during WWI
33HITLER’S BELIEFSHitler explained his beliefs in his book, Mein Kampf, (My Struggle)He wanted to unite all German-speaking people under one grand EmpireHe wanted racial purity – “inferior” races such as Jews, Slavs and all non-whites were to form a work force for the “master race” – blond, blue-eyed “Aryans”He alone, who owns the youth, gains the Future!-- Adolf Hitler, speech at the Reichsparteitag, 1935
34Revolution and the New Order President Hindenburg nominated him as Reich Chancellor on January 30, 1933Consolidated Presidency and Chancellorship when Hindenburg died on August 2, 1934Established an absolute dictatorship once in powerSent millions of “undesirables” to concentration camps and murdered up to 6 million Jewish people and 5 million of ethnic groups
35Adolf Hitler - GermanyBelonged to National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi party)Anti- Communist, Anti-SocialistBased on extreme Nationalism
36Adolf Hitler - Germany Goal: Uniting all German speaking people in a great German empire because they were a “master” race.National Expansion – for Germany to survive it needed more “Living Space”“to secure German people the land and soil to which they are entitled on this earth” even if this could be accomplished only by “the might of a victorious sword.”
37Adolf Hitler - Germany The Great Depression and Hitler 1932 – 6 million Germans were unemployedGermans turned to Hitler as their last hopeMarch 1932 elections, Nazis won the most votesJanuary 1933, Hitler appointed Chancellor (prime minister)Creating the Third ReichQuickly dismantled Germany’s democratic Weimar Republic, created THIRD REICHThought it would be a “1000 year Reich”Ultimately invades nearby countries in attempt to “create more living space” for Germans.
38What Type of Government is HITLER running? 1 or Multi-party State?Answer: One Party StateWhat type of Government?TotalitarianDictatorshipFascist