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NEXT Man taking a piece of the Berlin Wall as a souvenir after the fall of communism in East Germany (December 1989). Struggles for Democracy, 1945–Present.

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Presentation on theme: "NEXT Man taking a piece of the Berlin Wall as a souvenir after the fall of communism in East Germany (December 1989). Struggles for Democracy, 1945–Present."— Presentation transcript:

1 NEXT Man taking a piece of the Berlin Wall as a souvenir after the fall of communism in East Germany (December 1989). Struggles for Democracy, 1945–Present China and governments in Latin America, Africa, and the former Soviet bloc respond to calls for democracy.

2 NEXT Struggles for Democracy, 1945–Present Map SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 Democracy The Challenge of Democracy in Africa The Collapse of the Soviet Union Changes in Central and Eastern Europe SECTION 5 China: Reform and Reaction Chart

3 NEXT Section 1 Democracy In Latin America, economic problems and authoritarian rule delay democracy.

4 NEXT Democracy As a Goal Democracy Difficulties in Establishing Democracy Common practices include free elections and citizen participation Also: majority rule, minority rights, constitutional government Difficult to establish democracy—even in U.S., took many years These practices need conditions in country to support them Education and a stable economy help So do individual rights, rule by law, sense of national identity SECTION 1

5 NEXT Dictators and Democracy SECTION 1 Brazil’s Early History Brazil: monarchy in 1822, republic controlled by wealthy in 1889 In 1930s, dictator suppresses opposition but builds economy Continued... Kubitschek’s Ambitious Program Juscelino Kubitschek builds economy, new capital city—Brasília His followers back reforms, but conservatives object to land reform Land reform—breaking up huge estates into holdings for peasants Wealthy Brazilians support takeover by military in 1964

6 NEXT Military Dictators Military rules for two decades, building economy but cutting wages Standard of living—level of material comfort— declines continued Dictators and Democracy SECTION 1 The Road to Democracy In 1980s, Brazil has recession—economic slowdown Civilian leaders elected but cannot fix economy The 2002 Presidential Election New election in 2002 includes rivals with different economic views Luis Inácio Lula da Silva wins election; hopes to reclaim economy Chart

7 NEXT One-Party Rule SECTION 1 Beginnings of One-Party Domination In 1920s and 1930s, leaders build a party that dominates Mexico Lázaro Cárdenas rules 1934–1940, next presidents abandon his reforms The Party Becomes the PRI In 1946, main party becomes PRI—Institutional Revolutionary Party Party controls government; fraud, corruption mar elections In 1968, students and workers protest, soldiers fire on crowd Mexico depends on oil and gas income, suffers when prices fall Continued...

8 NEXT Economic and Political Crises Opposition parties gain support, force reforms in 1988 In 1994, rebels in southern Mexico state of Chiapas stage uprising continued One-Party Rule SECTION 1 The PRI Loses Control Other parties gain many seats in Congress Center-right candidate Vicente Fox wins presidency in 2000 New Policies and Programs As new president, Fox has many ambitious goals Image

9 NEXT Political and Economic Disorder SECTION 1 Perón Rules Argentina In 1946, Juan Perón becomes dictator in Argentina; ousted in 1955 Repression in Argentina Military rules into 1970s, but country develops many problems Government moves harshly against opposition, killing many people Democracy and the Economy Government disgraced after losing Falklands war in 1982 Civilians elected to lead, but cannot solve economic problems Image Continued...

10 NEXT A Growing Crisis Economic problems continue with high debt, unemployment continued Political and Economic Disorder SECTION 1

11 NEXT As the recent histories of Nigeria and South Africa show, ethnic and racial conflicts can hinder democracy. Section 2 The Challenge of Democracy in Africa

12 NEXT Colonial Rule Limits Democracy The Challenge of Democracy in Africa European Policies Cause Problems Borders of colonies in Africa ignore ethnic, cultural divisions As a result, national identity is slow to develop in Africa Colonial rule produces economic problems Colonial rule also disrupts family, community life SECTION 2 Short-Lived Democracies Post-independence governments fragile, vulnerable to military coups

13 NEXT Civil War in Nigeria A Land of Many Peoples Nigeria has people from three ethnic groups, each with own state Country adopts federal system—state, central governments share power SECTION 2 War with Biafra In 1960s, country torn by ethnic fighting Military imposes martial law—temporary military rule—in 1966 In 1967, eastern region leaves Nigeria, forms new country of Biafra War ends in 1970 with Biafra defeated, Nigeria reunited

14 NEXT Nigeria’s Nation-Building Federal Government Restored In 1970s and 1980s military tries to create stable federal system SECTION 2 A Return to Civilian Rule General Sani Abacha overturns election results of 1993, takes power He punishes dissidents—government opponents In 1999, civilian government finally gains power President Obasanjo Obasanjo tries to build strong, unified Nigeria by ending corruption Promotes idea of forgiveness of Nigeria’s debt to rebuild country

15 NEXT South Africa Under Apartheid Minority Rule South Africa gains independence in 1931; white minority rules SECTION 2 Apartheid Segregates Society In 1948, National Party enacts apartheid— separation of races Government sets up reserves, called homelands, for blacks in 1959 Blacks Protest In 1912, blacks form African National Congress (ANC) to protest Nelson Mandela—ANC leader imprisoned for 27 years Protests rise in 1970s and 1980s, sometimes resulting in violence

16 NEXT Struggle for Democracy Pressure for Change Religious leader Desmond Tutu urges economic pressure on government He asks other countries not to trade with South Africa SECTION 2 The First Steps In 1990, F. W. de Klerk legalizes ANC, frees Mandela from prison Parliament repeals apartheid laws, grants rights to blacks De Klerk agrees to elections open to all races to be held in 1994 Continued... Image

17 NEXT Majority Rule In 1994, ANC wins majority of Parliament; Mandela elected president continued Struggle for Democracy SECTION 2 A New Constitution In 1996, new constitution adopted giving equal rights to all South Africa Today In 1999, Thabo Mbeki elected president He faces challenges: high crime, unemployment, rampant poverty He hopes to increase trade with other countries Major problem facing South Africa is high number of people with AIDS

18 Section 3 The Collapse of the Soviet Union Democratic reforms bring important changes to the Soviet Union. NEXT

19 Gorbachev Moves Toward Democracy Problems Develop Politburo—ruling committee of Communist Party; rules USSR harshly Leonid Brezhnev dies in 1982; two successors rule briefly SECTION 3 The Collapse of the Soviet Union A Younger Leader Mikhail Gorbachev—becomes Soviet leader in 1984 Young, energetic, skilled, wants to pursue new policies Glasnost Promotes Openness To achieve economic reforms, he needs open dialogue in society Promotes new policy of glasnost—openness; dissent allowed Image

20 NEXT Reforming the Economy and Politics Economic Restructuring People complain about lack of goods; Gorbachev blames old system In 1985, he introduces perestroika—policy of economic restructuring Hopes to make economy more efficient, productive SECTION 3 Democratization Opens the Political System In 1987, he unveils plans to have more democracy Voters, given a choice, elect many reformers to new legislature Foreign Policy Gorbachev signs arms control agreements with U.S.

21 NEXT The Soviet Union Faces Turmoil Ethnic Revolts Gorbachev wants to reform Soviet Union, but reforms lead to collapse Non-Russian ethnic groups rebel in different republics SECTION 3 Continued... Lithuania Defies Gorbachev In 1990, Lithuania declares independence Gorbachev, fearing similar actions in other republics, sends troops Yeltsin Denounces Gorbachev Reformer Boris Yeltsin rallies people against Communist old guard Old-time Communists oppose both Gorbachev and Yeltsin

22 NEXT The August Coup In August 1991, hardliners try to seize control of government again Thousands of protesters and Yeltsin rally against this move Army refuses to attack protesters and coup collapses continued The Soviet Union Faces Turmoil SECTION 3 Image End of the Soviet Union Government takes actions to punish Communist Party for the coup Many republics declare independence; Gorbachev cannot stop them Republics form a federation, CIS—Commonwealth of Independent States Map

23 NEXT Russia Under Boris Yeltsin Yeltsin Faces Problems Yeltsin aims to reform the Russian economy Tries “shock therapy”—quick transition to free market system New policies bring economic chaos and hardship, political troubles SECTION 3 Chechnya Rebels In 1991, Chechnya declares independence from Russia Yeltsin attempts to crush rebellion, causing unrest at home As conflict continues in 1999, he resigns in favor of Vladimir Putin

24 NEXT Russia Under Vladimir Putin Troubles Continue in Chechnya Fighting drags on in Chechnya In 2002, Chechen rebels seize theater in Moscow, many die SECTION 3 Economic, Political, and Social Problems Economic problems continue, leading to unstable politics Social problems include homelessness, unemployment Declines in population, standard of living, average life expectancy

25 NEXT Section 4 Changes in Central and Eastern Europe Changes in the Soviet Union lead to changes throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

26 NEXT Changes in Central and Eastern Europe The Rise of Solidarity Workers strike to win recognition of Solidarity— Polish labor union Lech Walesa—leader of union—becomes national hero SECTION 4 Poland and Hungary Reform Continued... Solidarity Defeats Communists Communist government bans Solidarity but cannot solve economic woes In 1988, workers rebel to force recognition of Solidarity Elections in 1989 and 1990 make Walesa president of Poland

27 NEXT Poland Votes Out Walesa Walesa tries to build free market economy quickly Though some progress made, many Poles unhappy; Walesa voted out continued Poland and Hungary Reform SECTION 4 Hungarian Communists Disband In 1990, voters elect non-Communist government in Hungary Democracy thrives; Hungary joins NATO in 1999 Poland Under Kwasniewski Alexander Kwasniewski elected president in 1995 Brings Poland into NATO, tries to build strong market economy

28 NEXT Germany Reunifies Resistance to Change East Germany’s leader resists reforms as in Poland, Hungary Thousands of East Germans escape through Hungary to Austria Fall of the Berlin Wall East Germany closes its borders, sparking massive protests In late 1989, new East German leader opens Berlin Wall By end of year, Communist government there has collapsed SECTION 4 Continued... Image

29 NEXT Reunification Reunification—merging of the two Germanys— achieved in 1990 continued Germany Reunifies SECTION 4 A New Chancellor In 1998, Kohl voted out of office New leader—Gerhard Schroeder—has difficulty reviving economy Germany becomes more active in world affairs after reunifying Germany’s Challenges East Germany in poor shape, needs rebuilding This costly effort forces German leader Helmut Kohl to raise taxes

30 NEXT Democracy Spreads in Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia Reforms In 1989, large crowd in Prague protests, demands democracy Tough government crackdown sparks more protests By late 1989, Communists are gone; Václav Havel elected president Czechoslovakia Breaks Up Economic reforms hurt people in Slovakia, eastern part of country In 1993, Czechoslovakia splits into two separate countries Both economies grow—slow in Czech Republic; faster in Slovakia SECTION 4

31 NEXT Overthrow in Romania A Popular Uprising In late 1989, Romania’s leader has army shoot protestors This action prompts major revolt and collapse of Communist rule Dictator Nicolae Ceausescu and wife executed Christmas Day, 1989 The Romanian Economy Corruption and crime prevalent through 1990s; economy lags Much of economy still owned by government, not in private hands But Government begins moving toward market economy SECTION 4

32 NEXT The Breakup of Yugoslavia Ethnic Problems Yugoslavia has 8 ethnic groups in a federation of 6 republics A Bloody Breakup Milosevic, Serbian leader, tries to impose control on whole country Slovenia and Croatia fight off Serbian army, win independence In 1992, Bosnia-Herzegovina declares independence; war breaks out Serb forces practice ethnic cleansing—getting rid of Bosnian Muslims In 1995, U.S., UN establish peace setting up multiethnic government SECTION 4 Image Continued... Map

33 NEXT Rebellion in Kosovo In 1998, fighting starts in Kosovo, Serb province of ethnic Albanians Serbian army invades to put down Albanian rebels with harsh force In 1999, NATO bombs Serbia, forces Serbs to withdraw continued The Breakup of Yugoslavia SECTION 4 The Region Faces Its Problems Serbia has new leader; Milosevic faces war crimes trials Montenegro and Serbia form loose union, may separate in future

34 NEXT Section 5 China: Reform and Reaction In response to contact with the West, China’s government has experimented with capitalism but has rejected calls for democracy.

35 NEXT China: Reform and Reaction Problems of Mao’s Rule Mao Zedong wants to improve China’s economy, but cannot Mao’s policies, a lack of modern technology prevent economic growth He launches Cultural Revolution in 1960s to revive Communist spirit Its excesses turn many people against communism Zhou Enlai—leader in early 1970s—pursues moderate policies The Legacy of Mao SECTION 5 Chart

36 NEXT China and the West China Opened Its Doors Zhou worries that China is too isolated from rest of world In 1971, U.S. and China begin closer relations SECTION 5 Economic Reform In 1976, Mao and Zhou die; moderates take control of Communist Party Deng Xiaoping—becomes leader of China by 1980 Four Modernizations—Deng’s plan for economic progress This policy reverses strict Communist policies long backed by Mao

37 NEXT Massacre in Tiananmen Square Unforeseen Problems Reforms lead to some unrest over privileges of Communist leaders Western political ideas enter China, encouraging democracy SECTION 5 Students Demand Democracy In 1989, students protest in Tiananmen Square— public area in Beijing Deng Orders a Crackdown Deng orders army to surround square, attack protesters Attack leaves hundreds dead, thousands wounded Government begins large-scale campaign to end dissent Image

38 NEXT China Enters the New Millennium China Under Jiang In 1997, Deng dies; Jiang Zemin takes power Hardliners want Jiang to move away from Deng’s reforms In 2002, Jiang steps down in favor of Zhu Rongji Both Jiang and Zhu favor continued reforms SECTION 5 Transfer of Hong Kong Hong Kong—former British colony, city in China, major economic power In 1997, Britain hands Hong Kong back to China

39 NEXT China Beyond 2000 Economics and Politics Economic reforms reduce poverty in China Though many countries have economic problems, China’s economy grows Many in China want political reforms China is becoming more involved with other countries SECTION 5

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