Presentation on theme: "After World War II, Chinese Communists defeat Nationalist forces and two separate Chinas emerge."— Presentation transcript:
After World War II, Chinese Communists defeat Nationalist forces and two separate Chinas emerge.
World War II in China Mao Zedong—leads Chinese Communists against Japanese invaders Jiang Jieshi (a.k.a. Chiang Kai-shek)— leads of Chinese Nationalists in WWII Nationalist and Communist Chinese resume civil war after WWII ends
Mao Zedong Jiang Jieshi (a.k.a. Chiang Kai-shek)
Civil War Resumes Economic problems cause Nationalist soldiers to desert to Communists Mao’s troops take control of China’s major cities In 1949, People’s Republic of China is created Nationalists flee to Taiwan
The Superpowers React U.S. supports Nationalist state in Taiwan, called Republic of China Soviets and China agree to help each other in event of attack U.S. tries to stop Soviet expansion and spread of communism in China
China Expands under the Communists China takes control of Tibet and southern Mongolia India welcomes Tibetan refugees fleeing revolt against Chinese China and India clash over border; fighting stops but tensions remain
Communists Claim a New “Mandate of Heaven” Chinese Communists organize national government and Communist Party Mao’s Brand of Marxist Socialism Mao takes property from landowners and divides it among peasants Government seizes private companies and plans production increase
The Great Leap Forward Communes—large collective farms often supporting over 25,000 people Program is ended after inefficiency leads to crop failures and famines
New Policies and Mao’s Response China and Soviet Union clash over leadership of communist movement Strict socialist ideas are moderated, Mao reduces his role in government Red Guards—militia units formed to enforce strict communism in China
The Red Guards: China’s Teenage Police Force Between 1966 and 1976, students in China’s Red Guard waged a Cultural Revolution on teachers and professionals that left a million people dead and the country in chaos.
Red Guards holding Mao’s “Little Red Book” of his sayings during the cultural revolution.
The Cultural Revolution Cultural Revolution—movement to build society of peasants and workers Red Guards—groups of violent and radical youth—close schools and execute or imprison many intellectuals In 1968, Chinese army imprisons, executes, or exiles most Red Guards who have been labeled by the government “Counter Revolutionary.” However, the Cultural Revolution continues until Mao’s death in 1976.
After Mao’s death, the Gang of Four—the radical group that controlled the power organs of the Chinese Communist Party throughout the Cultural Revolution—is arrested and judged responsible for the excesses and chaos that occurred in China as a result of this revolution.
In response to contact with the West, China’s government has experimented with capitalism but has rejected calls for democracy.
Problems of Mao’s Rule Mao Zedong wants to improve China’s economy, but cannot Mao’s policies, a lack of modern technology prevent economic growth He launches Cultural Revolution in 1960s to revive Communist split. Its excesses turn many people against communism. Zhou Enlai-leader in early 1970s-pursues moderate policies.
China Opened Its Doors Zhou worries that China is too isolated from rest of world In 1971, U.S. and China begin closer relations
Economic Reform In 1976, Mao and Zhou die; moderates take control of Communist Party Deng Xiaoping-becomes leader of China by 1980 Four Modernization-Deng’s plan for economic progress This policy reverses strict Communist policies long backed by Mao
Unforeseen Problems Reforms lead to some unrest over privileges of Communist leaders Western political ideas enter China, encouraging democracy Students Demand Democracy In 1989, students protest in Tiananmen Square-public area in Beijing
Deng Orders a Crackdown Deng orders army to surround square, attack protestors Attack leaves hundreds dead, thousands wounded Government begins large-scale campaign to end dissent
China Under Jiang In 1997, Deng dies; Jiang Zemin takes power Hard liners want Jiang to move away from Deng’s reforms In 2002, Jiang steps down in favor of Zhu Rongji Both Jiang and Zhu favor continued reforms
Zhu Rongji Jiang Zemin Hu Jintao
Transfer of Hong Kong Hong Kong-former British colony, city in China, major economic power In 1997, Britain hands Hong Kong back to China
Economics and Politics Economic reforms reduce poverty in China Though many countries have economic problems, China’s economy grows Many in China want political reforms China is becoming more involved with other countries