Presentation on theme: "33-2 Communists Take Power in China"— Presentation transcript:
133-2 Communists Take Power in China After World War II, Chinese Communists defeat Nationalist forces and two separate Chinas emerge.
2Communists vs. Nationalists World War II in ChinaMao Zedong—leads Chinese Communists against Japanese invadersJiang Jieshi (a.k.a. Chiang Kai-shek)—leads of Chinese Nationalists in WWIINationalist and Communist Chinese resume civil war after WWII ends
3Communists vs. Nationalists Jiang Jieshi (a.k.a. Chiang Kai-shek)Mao Zedong
6Communists vs. Nationalists Civil War ResumesEconomic problems cause Nationalist soldiers to desert to CommunistsMao’s troops take control of China’s major citiesIn 1949, People’s Republic of China is createdNationalists flee to Taiwan
7The Two Chinas Affect the Cold War The Superpowers ReactU.S. supports Nationalist state in Taiwan, called Republic of ChinaSoviets and China agree to help each other in event of attackU.S. tries to stop Soviet expansion and spread of communism in China
8The Two Chinas Affect the Cold War China Expands under the CommunistsChina takes control of Tibet and southern MongoliaIndia welcomes Tibetan refugees fleeing revolt against ChineseChina and India clash over border; fighting stops but tensions remain
9The Communists Transform China Communists Claim a New “Mandate of Heaven”Chinese Communists organize national government and Communist PartyMao’s Brand of Marxist SocialismMao takes property from landowners and divides it among peasantsGovernment seizes private companies and plans production increase
13The Communists Transform China New Policies and Mao’s ResponseChina and Soviet Union clash over leadership of communist movementStrict socialist ideas are moderated, Mao reduces his role in governmentRed Guards—militia units formed to enforce strict communism in China
14The Red Guards: China’s Teenage Police Force Between 1966 and 1976, students in China’s Red Guard waged a Cultural Revolution on teachers and professionals that left a million people dead and the country in chaos.
15Red Guards holding Mao’s “Little Red Book” of his sayings during the cultural revolution.
16The Communists Transform China The Cultural RevolutionCultural Revolution—movement to build society of peasants and workersRed Guards—groups of violent and radical youth—close schools and execute or imprison many intellectualsIn 1968, Chinese army imprisons, executes, or exiles most Red Guards who have been labeled by the government “Counter Revolutionary.”However, the Cultural Revolution continues until Mao’s death in 1976.
17Gang of FourAfter Mao’s death, the Gang of Four—the radical group that controlled the power organs of the Chinese Communist Party throughout the Cultural Revolution—is arrested and judged responsible for the excesses and chaos that occurred in China as a result of this revolution.
1835-5 China: Reform and Reaction In response to contact with the West, China’s government has experimented with capitalism but has rejected calls for democracy.
19The Legacy of Mao Problems of Mao’s Rule Mao Zedong wants to improve China’s economy, but cannotMao’s policies, a lack of modern technology prevent economic growthHe launches Cultural Revolution in 1960s to revive Communist split.Its excesses turn many people against communism.Zhou Enlai-leader in early 1970s-pursues moderate policies.
20China and the West China Opened Its Doors Zhou worries that China is too isolated from rest of worldIn 1971, U.S. and China begin closer relations
22Economic ReformIn 1976, Mao and Zhou die; moderates take control of Communist PartyDeng Xiaoping-becomes leader of China by 1980Four Modernization-Deng’s plan for economic progressThis policy reverses strict Communist policies long backed by Mao
24Massacre in Tiananmen Square Unforeseen ProblemsReforms lead to some unrest over privileges of Communist leadersWestern political ideas enter China, encouraging democracyStudents Demand DemocracyIn 1989, students protest in Tiananmen Square-public area in Beijing
27Deng Orders a Crackdown Deng orders army to surround square, attack protestorsAttack leaves hundreds dead, thousands woundedGovernment begins large-scale campaign to end dissent
28China Enters New Millennium China Under JiangIn 1997, Deng dies; Jiang Zemin takes powerHard liners want Jiang to move away from Deng’s reformsIn 2002, Jiang steps down in favor of Zhu RongjiBoth Jiang and Zhu favor continued reforms
33China Beyond 2000 Economics and Politics Economic reforms reduce poverty in ChinaThough many countries have economic problems, China’s economy growsMany in China want political reformsChina is becoming more involved with other countries