Section AExercise 2 1.This is … Hi … 2.I ’ d like you to meet … It ’ s nice to meet you. 3.Hello, … It ’ s good to meet you. 4.Hi, … Yeah, I ’ m … 5.I don ’ t think we ’ ve met. I ’ m … It ’ s a pleasure to meet you.
Section BExercise 1 1.the weather 2.work 3.school 4.the movies
Section BExercise 2 1.It looks like rain. 2.So what do you do? 3.Are you a student? 4.Are you going to see City of Angels?
Section CKey Words ice breaker – an ice breaker is what you say to get a conversation started. You need ice breakers to start conversations with people you don ’ t know or don ’ t know well. elaborate – describe or explain sth. in detail
entice – to attract discreet – showing prudence and wise self-restraint in speech and behavior recap – to recapitulate; to make a summary hypocritical – showing beliefs, feelings, or virtues that one does not hold or possess
Section CExercise 1 1. Becoming a good conversationalist requires knowing three things: 1) how to start a conversation 2) how to keep a conversation going 3) how to end a conversation
2. Examples of good ice breakers: 1) compliments 2) news events 3. Use elaboration technique to ask questions about: 1) who 2) what 3) when 4) where 5) why 6) how
4. Use signals to end a conversation: 1) break eye contact 2) use transition words 3) a good, firm handshake
Section AKey Words deserve – to be worthy or deserving raffle – a lottery in which a number of persons buy chances to win a prize
Section AExercise 1 1.happy; got A on science test 2.happy; her sister had a baby girl. 3.happy; won 10 dollars 4.not happy; dog hit by a car 5.not happy; haven ’ t heard from family for a long time
Section AExercise 2 1.Congratulations! That ’ s great! 2.How wonderful! 3.Boy, are you lucky! 4.That ’ s terrible! Is he okay? 5.How often do they usually write?
Section AExercise 2 1.By middle age, about 92 % of Americans have been married at least once. 2.Today only 56 % American adults are married and living with their spouse. 3.Today there are about 77 million unmarried adults in the U.S.
4. In 1970, the median age of a first- time bride was 20.6, and the median age of a groom was 22.5.
5. Today the median ages for the bride and the groom are 25 and 27 respectively. 6. About 35 % of younger adults between ages 25 to 34 have never been married. 7. Of the country ’ s 58 million married couples, marriages between blacks and whites are less than 0.3 %.
Section BKey Words Mama mia – an Italian expression used as an exclamation for the same purpose as " My God! " or " My Goodness!" matchmaker – one who arranges or tries to arrange marriages
Section BExercise 2 First Story 1. One Friday night 2. forty years Second Story 1. Christmas day 2. a year
Third Story 1. in a restaurant 2. hopes and dreams Fourth Story 1. goals and values 2. six years
Section CKey Words breadwinner – one whose earnings are the primary source of support for one's dependents homemaker – one who manages a household discard – to throw away; reject
chore – daily or routine domestic tasks self-sufficient – able to provide for oneself without the help of others; independent submissive – inclined or willing to submit; obedient
Section CExercise 1 1.Husband is the breadwinner and wife is the homemaker. 2.Women ’ s Liberation Movement in the 1960s 3.Individual goals/their own identity 4.Financial/money-making and domestic/housekeeping responsibilities 5.Marriage is based on a relationship of equality and shared decision making.
Section AExercise 1 1.New Year ’ s Day: January 1st. 2.Lincoln ’ s Birthday: February 12th. 3.Valentine ’ s Day: February 14th. 4.Washington ’ s Birthday: February 22nd. 5.St. Patrick ’ s Day: March 17th. 6.April Fool ’ s Day: April 1st.
7.Easter: March or April. 8.Mother ’ s Day: the second Sunday in May. 9.Memorial Day: May 30th. 10.Flag Day: June 14th. 11.Father ’ s Day: the third Sunday in June. 12.Independence Day: July 4th.
13.Labor Day: the first Monday in September 14. Columbus Day: October 12th 15. Halloween: October 31st 16. Veterans ’ Day: November 11th 17. Thanksgiving Day: the fourth Thursday in November 18. Christmas: December 25th
Section AExercise 2 1.June 14th 2.Valentine ’ s Day 3.Thanksgiving 4.Independence Day
Section BKey Words festivity – the proceedings or events of a festival Times Square – an intersection in New York City formed by the juncture of Broadway, Seventh Avenue, and 42nd Street in midtown Manhattan. Long noted as a center of the city's entertainment district, it is the site of annual New Year's Eve celebrations
crystal – a high-quality clear, colorless glass descent – a lowering or decline, as in status or level flagpole – a pole on which a flag is raised confetti – small pieces or streamers of colored paper that are scattered around during the course of festive occasions resolution – determination
Section CKey Words costume – an outfit or a disguise worn on Mardi Gras, Halloween, or similar occasions prank – a mischievous trick or practical joke crayon – a stick of colored wax, charcoal, or chalk, used for drawing masquerade – a costume party at which masks are worn
carve – to cut into a desired shape jack-o ’ -lanterns – pumpkin with holes cut in it so that it looks like a face, used as a lantern for fun scarecrow – a crude image or effigy of a person set up in a field to scare birds away from growing crops disguise – to modify the manner or appearance of in order to prevent recognition
Section CExercise 2 1.Mrs. Brown put the safety chain on her door before she opened it. 2.Typical Halloween pranks include soaping windows, writing on doors with crayons, overturning garbage cans, sticking pins into doorbells, throwing raw eggs, and spraying shaving cream on cars and friends.
3. College students may attend masquerade parties or Halloween parades. 4.Families carve pumpkins and decorate homes with traditional Halloween symbols. 5.Store windows display jack-o ’ -lanterns, scarecrows and witches. 6.Restaurant servers and sales people often dress up in costume. 7.Nightclubs and bars offer customers prizes for the best disguises.
Part III Listening Comprehension Test 1.C6.A 2.B7.C 3.C8.B 4.B9.A 5.B 10.A
Section AKey Words cottage – a small home or retreat in the countryside or in a natural study houseboat – a barge designed and equipped for use as a dwelling or cruiser cruise – the act or an instance of cruising, especially a sea voyage for pleasure
dude ranch – a resort patterned after a Western ranch, featuring camping, horseback riding, and other outdoor activities resort – a place frequented by people for relaxation or recreation word of mouth – spoken communication
Section AExercise 1 1.A change of scene 2.Get close to nature 3.Guidebooks and travel magazines
Section AExercise 2 (1) visit the vast national parks. (2) rent summer cottages near swimming and boating facilities. (3) camp out in tents. (4) rent a houseboat and cruise down the Mississippi. (5) learn horse-riding on dude ranches. (6) go to resorts for comfort, great food and wide open spaces.
(1) state tourist bureaus (2) travel agencies (3) people who have been there
Section BKey Words save up – keep (money) for future use split up – separate
Section BExercise 2 The husband: a, d, e, g The wife: b, c, f Travel agent: h Agent ’ s wife: i
Section CKey Words surpass – to be or go beyond, as in degree or quality; exceed expressway – a major divided highway designed for high-speed travel
Pablo Picasso – Spanish artist; One of the most prolific and influential artists of the 20th centuryPicasso excelled in painting, sculpture, etching, stage design, and ceramics. With Georges Braque he launched cubism (1906- 1925), and he introduced the technique of collage. Among Picasso's masterpieces are Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907) and Guernica (1937). 毕加索，帕布罗： (1881-1973) 西班牙画家，是 20 世纪 最多产和最有影响的画家之一。毕加索擅长绘画、雕刻、 蚀刻、舞台设计和制陶艺术。与乔治 · 布拉克开创了立体 主义画派 (1906-1925 年），并引入了拼贴艺术，毕加 索的杰作有阿维尼翁的小姐 (1907 年） 和 格尔尼卡 (1937 年）
Alexander Calder – American sculptor who created the mobile in Paris in the early 1930's and also produced immobile abstract sculptures known as stabiles 考尔德，亚历山大： (1898-1976) 美国雕塑 家，三十年代早期在巴黎创造了活动雕塑，并 且创立了固定的抽象雕塑，即众所周知的稳定 风格
Eero Saarinen – Finnish-born American architect whose designs include the General Motors Technical Center in Warren, Michigan (1951-1955) and the Trans World Airlines terminal at Kennedy Airport in New York City (1962). 萨里南，艾罗： (1910-1961) 芬兰裔美国建 筑师，他曾设计了密西根州沃伦市的通用汽车技 术中心 (1951-1955 年）和纽约市肯尼迪国际 机场候机楼 (1962 年）
gateway – an opening or a structure framing an opening, such as an arch; Something that serves as an entrance or a means of access skyline – the outline of a group of buildings or a mountain range seen against the sky; the horizon the Great Plains – 美国的大平原 Mount Rushmore – 拉什莫尔山
Chicago – the largest city of Illinois, in the northeast part of the state on Lake Michigan 芝加哥 Los Angeles – a city of southern California on the Pacific Ocean in a widespread metropolitan area 洛杉矶 Missouri – a state of the central United States 密苏里州 South Dakota – a state of the north- central United States 南达科他州
the Midwest – A region of the north-central United States around the Great Lakes and the upper Mississippi Valley. It is generally considered to include Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska. The area is known for its rich farmlands and highly industrialized centers. 美国中西部：美国中北部五大湖区及密西西比河上 游河谷周围的地区。通常认为包括俄亥俄州、印 第安那州、伊里诺斯州、密歇根州、威斯康星州、 明尼苏达州、爱荷华州、密苏里州、堪萨斯州及 内布拉斯加州。该地区以肥沃的耕地及高度工业 化的工业中心而闻名。
Section AKey Words invoice – a detailed list of goods shipped or services rendered, with an account of all costs; an itemized bill Mombasa – a city of southeast Kenya mainly on Mombasa Island, in the Indian Ocean north of Zanzibar 蒙巴萨岛
supplement – something added brochure – a small booklet or pamphlet, often containing promotional material or product information compartment – a separate room, section, or chamber
Section AExercise 1 Type of TransportDestination 1.BusSuperstore 2.TrainYork 3.TaxiNearest pharmacy 4.PlaneParis 5.ShipMombasa 6.Underground/tube Piccadilly
Section BKey Words proceed – to go forward or onward refreshment – a snack or light meal and drinks steward – an attendant on a ship or an airplane formality – an established form or rule to be followed
block visa – fortnight – a period of 14 days; two weeks buffet car – dining car 餐车 lager – a type of beer, originally brewed in Germany
Section BExercise 1 1. New York, BA710, 10.30, Delayed till 12.00 2. BA 989, 0437L, 14 days 3. York, 19.00, platform 4, cancelled York, 20.00, platform 6, departure time:21.00
4. Buffet open from 22.00 to 23.30 Tea √ Coffee √ Beer × Lager × Other alcoholic drinks × Cold sandwiches √
Section BExercise 2 1. Passengers with boarding cards can get light refreshments from the restaurant.
2. They are now cruising at an altitude of 36,000 feet. On take-off the captain was informed that the radar equipment developed technical problems. Passengers will experience a short delay in landing. They will be on the ground by 19.30. The chief steward will tell the passengers about landing- card formalities.
3. This is an announcement for passengers traveling to York. Some of the trains have been cancelled or delayed this evening. 4. This is your chief steward speaking. We are pleased to announce that the buffet car will be open after leaving Peterborough. However, due to staff shortages, it will close after leaving Doncaster. Because of industrial action some items of food and drink were not delivered to the train.
Section CKey Words claim – a demand for something as rightful or due; a demand for payment in accordance with an insurance policy or other formal arrangement Geneva – a city of southwest Switzerland located on Lake Geneva and bisected by the Rhone River 日内瓦
Section CExercise 1 Passenger ’ s name: John Francks Arriving from: Geneva Flight number: SA429 Passenger ’ s contact address: 32 Grosvenor Terrace, London, W2Y 4AP Contact telephone number: 017 437-8210 Description of luggage: 1 black suitcase, 1 black travel bag Passenger ’ s signature: John Francks
Part III Listening Comprehension Test 1. C6. B 2. B7. D 3. D8. B 4. C9. B 5. C10. D
Section AKey Words lodging – sleeping accommodations accessible – easily approached or entered encompass – to constitute or include interior – of, relating to, or located on the inside
spa – a resort having mineral springs; providing therapeutic baths boutique – small but exquisite; a small retail shop that specializes in gifts, fashionable clothes, accessories, or food showcase – to display prominently, especially to advantage
acreage – area of land measured in acres communally – for the use of all; shared by impoverished – poor backpacker – hikers carrying a backpack
Section AExercise 1 1.Rooms run from basic to five-star (Hotel) 2.Rooms open to the parking lot (Motel) 3.Rooms individually decorated (Boutique) 4.Free breakfast (Motel; B&B) 5.Share bathroom (B&B; Hostel) 6.Feel like at a friend ’ s house (B&B)
7. Popular in Europe and Australia (Hostel) 8. Very cheap (Hostel) 9. Very expensive (Boutique) 10. Easy access (Motel) 11. Do the shopping (Resort) 12. For students and backpackers (Hostel) 13. For families, honeymooners, gamblers (Resort)
14. Conference rooms (Hotel) 15. Lots of personal attention (Boutique, B&B) 16. Noisy and less private (Hostel) 17. Lots of parking (Motel) 18. Fun place to meet people (Hostel) 19. Pools and spas (Resort) 20. High-quality service (Boutique) 21. Great food (Resort) 22. Theme-based (Boutique)
Section BKey Words oui – yes [French] monsieur – a form of polite address for a man in a French-speaking area metro – subway
Section CKey Words continental breakfast – breakfast consisting usually of coffee or tea and a roll 欧式早餐 panel – a board having switches or buttons to control an electric device install – to set in position and connect or adjust for use Finnish – of or relating to Finland
Section CExercise 1 1. breakfast in the room 2. dress cleaned 3. early call 4. rent a TV 5. find a maid
Section AKey Words the Mediterranean – the region surrounding the Mediterranean Sea 地中海沿岸地区 the Alps – groups of high mountains mostly in Switzerland, France and Italy 阿尔卑斯山脉
the British Isles – a group of islands off the northwest coast of Europe comprising Great Britain, Ireland, and adjacent smaller islands 不列颠群岛 Scandinavia – a region of northern Europe consisting of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. Finland, Iceland, and the Faeroe Islands are often included in the region 斯堪的纳维亚
centigrade – Celsius; a temperature scale that registers the freezing point of water as 0 and the boiling point as 100 under normal atmospheric pressure gust – a strong, abrupt rush of wind
Section AExercise 1 Sunny:The British Isles Fair: Southern Scandinavia Cloudy:Central and Northern France Rain:Southern Europe Snow:The Alps Cold and clear: Eastern Europe Windy:Northern Germany
Section BKey Words British Columbia – a province of western Canada bordering on the Pacific Ocean 不 列颠哥伦比亚省 Seattle – a city of west-central Washington 西雅图 San Diego – a city of southern California 圣地亚哥 Oklahoma City – capital city of Oklahoma, a state of the south-central United States 俄克拉何马城
Houston – a city of southeast Texas 休斯顿 Miami – a city of southeast Florida 迈阿密 Toronto – the capital and largest city of Ontario, Canada, in the southern part of the province on Lake Ontario 多伦多 Montreal – a city of southern Quebec, Canada, on Montreal Island in the St. Lawrence River 蒙特利尔
thermometer – an instrument for measuring temperature flurry – a brief, light snowfall update – information that updates Fahrenheit – of or relating to a temperature scale that registers the freezing point of water as 32=F and the boiling point as 212=F at one atmosphere of pressure 华氏温标
Section BExercise 1 British Columbia down to northern California: raining Seattle: 50 degrees Southern California: sunny, warmer temperature San Diego: 78 degrees Midwest: clear but windy Oklahoma City: sunny with strong winds, 65 degrees
Houston: cloudy, 69 degrees Miami: cloudy, windy, 64 degrees New York City: heavy rains and high winds, 35 degrees Montreal: snow flurries, 28 degrees Toronto: sunny, 30 degrees
Section CKey Words equator – the imaginary great circle around the earth's surface, dividing the earth into the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere elevation – the height of a thing above a reference level; altitude
breeze – a light wind gale – a very strong wind hail – precipitation in the form of pellets of ice and hard snow
Section AKey Words thrift shop – a shop that sells used articles, especially clothing go broke – go bankrupt neat – (slang) wonderful; terrific
Section AExercise 1 Person 1: shopping Person 2: work Person 3: jogging tennis gardening Person 4: hiking camping sailing skydiving Person 5: plays ballet concerts opera movies Person 6: books dancing animals restaurants sleep
Section AExercise 2 1. At thrift shops because it ’ s cheap. 2. Because he sits at a computer all day 3. Neat / wonderful 4. Classic foreign films
Section BKey Words cowpoke – cowboy shoot-out – gunfight pan – to wash (gravel, for example) in a pan for gold or other precious metal
prospector – one who explores an area for mineral deposits or oil sirree – sir; used for emphasis after yes or no matinee – an entertainment, such as a dramatic or musical performance, given in the daytime, usually in the afternoon
Section BExercise 1 Opening days: seven days a week Opening times: Monday to Friday: 9 – 6 Saturday: 9 – 8 Sunday: 9 – 5 Tickets cost: ₤5 adults ₤2.50 students, children under 16 and old age pensioners Monday – free Additional information: two hours to go round Credit cards accepted
Opening months: April through September Opening days: seven days a week Opening times: 10 a.m. to sundown_ Wide West Show takes place: Saturday and Sunday Performances start: 10 a.m. Performances last: 2 ½ hours Price of admission: Adults: 12 Children:_$6 Family ticket: $24 (Wild West show: $2 extra per adult ) Additional information: free buses to the park throughout the day every Saturday and Sunday from Cactus City Centre
Performance days: Monday to Saturday Matinee days: Wednesday and Saturday Performance starts: 8 p.m. Matinee starts: 2 p.m. Performance finishes: 10.45 p.m. Matinee finishes: 4.45p.m. Tickets cost: ₤10, ₤12.50 and ₤15 Additional information: some tickets may be available at half price half an hour before the performance starts.
Section CKey Words spectator – audience aquarium – a place for the public exhibition of live aquatic animals and plants circus – a public entertainment consisting typically of a variety of performances by acrobats, clowns, and trained animals; a traveling company that performs such entertainments
rodeo – a public competition or exhibition in which skills such as riding broncos or roping calves are displayed Nevada – a state of the western United States 内华达州 casino – a public room or building for gambling and other entertainment lottery – way of raising money by selling numbered tickets and giving prizes to the holders of numbers selected at random
reservation – a tract of land set apart by the federal government for a special purpose, especially one for the use of a Native American people bet – something valuable risked on an uncertain outcome; put money on something
Section CExercise 2 1. Many Americans are not satisfied to be merely spectators and listeners. 2. Many high-quality amateur performances can be found all over the U.S. 3. Theater groups, orchestras, and bands can easily get volunteers to perform at reasonable prices. 4. Most bigger cities have zoos and aquariums for people to enjoy animals.
5. Rodeos are a form of entertainment popular in the American Southwest, Latin America and Australia. 6. Americans put different animals on the racetrack, for example, horses, dogs, pigeons, and pigs. 7. Today 37 states have lottery games and 22 states have gambling casinos on Native American reservations. Many states have riverboat gambling casinos. 8. Informal gambling among friends and coworkers includes bets on major sporting events or Friday evening poker games.
Section AExercise 2 1. At 9.15 at Sue ’ s place 2. Because it ’ s out of his way. 3. Phil Stone
Section BKey Words appeal – attract pastime – an activity that occupies one's spare time pleasantly pitcher – the player who throws the ball from the mound to the batter batter – the player who hits the ball
ball park – place where baseball is played padding – a soft material used to make pads or a pad gear – equipment, such as tools or clothing, used for a particular activity shot – an attempt to score in a game
Section BExercise 1 Baseball: called the national pastime; hitting the ball is quite a challenge; professional baseball season ends with the World Series Football: injuries are fairly common; both college football (Bowl games) and professional football (the Super Bowl) attract huge audiences
Basketball: most popular indoor sport; nearly every park has a basketball net and hard-surface playing area; 29 professional men ’ s teams
Section CKey Words preach – to advocate, especially to urge acceptance of blend – mixture strenuous – requiring great effort, energy, or exertion bowling – a game played by rolling a ball down a wooden alley in order to knock down a triangular group of ten pins; tenpins
workout – a session of exercise or practice daredevil – recklessly bold parachute – an apparatus used to retard free fall from an aircraft cliff – a high, steep, or overhanging face of rock bungee jumping – diving from a height while secured by elasticated ropes attached to the ankles 蹦极跳
Section CExercise 2 1. Doctors highly recommend golf and they often practice what they preach. The achievements of Tiger Woods is an inspiration to golfers everywhere. He is a man of American ulticulturalism. His ethnic background is a blend of African-American, Native American, Chinese, European, and Thai!
2. Bowling is not extremely strenuous and appeals to a wide age range. Many bowling leagues are formed by coworkers or members of community organizations. 3. Tennis provides a very vigorous workout. When two people play against each other, it ’ s called singles; when four people play, it ’ s called doubles.
4. Extreme sports involve speed, high skill, and danger. They include daredevil tricks on snowboards, skateboards, and bicycles; parachute jumps off bridges or cliffs; bungee jumping; barefoot waterskiing; and skydiving. Most Americans consider extreme sports enthusiasts extremely foolish. Others see them as having traditional pioneering, adventurous spirit.
Section AKey Words emblem – an object or a representation that functions as a symbol Olympiad – an interval of four years between celebrations of the Olympic games Antwerp – a city of northern Belgium 安特卫普 logo – a name, symbol, or trademark designed for easy and definite recognition
Section CKey Words couplet – a unit of verse consisting of two successive lines cutesy – deliberately or affectedly cute mascot – a person, an animal, or an object believed to bring good luck, especially one kept as the symbol of an organization such as a sports team carnival – a festival marked by merrymaking and feasting calligraphy – the art of fine handwriting
Section CExercise 1 Person 1: a little disappointing Person 2: not so unexpected Person 3: better than expected Person 4: nice Person 5: like it very much
Section CExercise 2 1. It takes some time to get used to it. 2. It is the best symbol color of China. 3. It ’ s fun, but it ’ s also a serious sporting event. 4. The hidden calligraphy looks Chinese character “ Jing ” ( 京 ) and the shape looks like a stone. 5. It looks like a personal stamp.
Section AKey Words adaptor – device that connects pieces of equipment that were not orginally designed to connect razor – a sharp-edged cutting instrument used especially for shaving the face or removing other body hair
Continental – European receipt – a written acknowledgment that a specified article, sum of money, or shipment of merchandise has been received
Section AExercise 2 1. Electrical supplies 2. ₤2.55 3. ₤3.15 4. Navy blue 5. V-neck and Round-neck 6. Small
Section BKey Words catalog – a list or itemized display of articles for sale, usually including descriptive information or illustrations in stock – available for sale or use expire – to come to an end; terminate credit – to enter as a credit 记入帐户的贷方
Section BExercise 1 Catalog Page No.: 36 Item: (women ’ s snowflake print) wool sweater Size: 12 Color: royal blue Way of Payment: credit card – Chase Visa Credit Card No.: 4356-67-9087 Expiratory Date: August 8, 2012
Full Name of Purchaser: Ann T. Dowell Delivery Time: ten days Delivery Address: 436 North Plain Street Brownsville, Missouri 65790
Section CKey Words retailer – tradesman who sells by retail mall – a large, often enclosed shopping complex deal – a business transaction bargain – a good deal or a reasonable price
discount store – a store that sells merchandise, especially consumer goods, at a discount from the manufacturer's suggested retail price. Also called discounter, discount house variety store – a retail store that carries a large variety of usually inexpensive merchandise
Section CExercise 1 Ken : On the Internet; There are a lot of retailers, it ’ s cheaper and faster, and you can get things sent to you the next day. Anna : Department stores/Discount stores/Variety stores. She likes to physically see and try on things, likes different kinds of places, and likes window-shopping.
Part III Listening Comprehension Test 1. A day after Thanksgiving Day 2. A 24-hour stop on consumer spending/ a consumer fast for one day 3. A loose union of international groups 4. Make people aware of over- consumption and its environmental and social consequences. 5. Nonmaterial things
6. Shop around. 7. Check shipping and handling charges. 8. Stick with companies you know. 9. Use your credit card. 10. Look for security guarantees.
Section AKey Words telemarketing – use of the telephone in marketing goods or services subscription – a purchase made by signed order, as for a periodical for a specified period of time
flamenco – a dance style of the Andalusian Gypsies characterized by forceful, often improvised rhythms database – a collection of data arranged for ease and speed of search and retrieval.Also called data bank
Section BKey Words subzero – below zero patented – protected by a grant made by a government that confers upon the creator of an invention the sole right to make, use, and sell that invention for a set period of time filling – something used to fill a space, cavity, or container bulky – large-sized
compact – occupying little space compared with others of its type take off – to achieve wide use or popularity word-processing – the creation, input, editing, and production of documents and texts by means of computer systems gizmo – a gadget
Section BExercise 1 Suzero sleeping bag: Yes. They ’ re warm, take up less room, and are lightweight. Compact, portable electronic dictionary: No. Kids have computers and don ’ t need dictionaries. Remote-control device for your car: Yes. (during the winter holidays)It sends out a signal that warms up your car.
Section CKey Words insecticide – chemical substance used to kill insects cockroach – any of numerous oval, flat- bodied insects that are common household pests woodworm – a worm or an insect larva that bores into wood scrub – to rub hard in order to clean
disinfect – to cleanse so as to destroy or prevent the growth of disease-carrying microorganisms creepy-crawly – insect thought of as unpleasant or frightening do the trick – It works; succeed spray – to disperse (a liquid) in a mass or jet of droplets
Section CExercise 1 Name: Mrs. Mary Egerton Address: 12 Holly Crescent, Peterford Age: Over 50 Occupation: Housewife
Why did you buy Pestaway? Cockroaches How long have you been using Pestaway? About two years How often do you use it? About every six weeks Where do you use it? In the kitchen around the skirting board, under the stove Where did you buy it? Corner shop How did you first hear about Pestaway? Radio advertisement Are you with Pestaway? Satisfied
Part III Listening Comprehension Test Talk one 1. B 2. A 3. B
Talk two 1. analyzing marketing problems scientifically 2. teenagers, high-income groups, senior citizens 3. population groups or geography 4. sales and profits 5. advertising research, market analysis, performance analysis, and product research
Section AKey Words poison oak – North American shrubs related to poison ivy and causing a rash on contact rash – a skin eruption
Section AExercise 1 1.a backache 2.a sore throat and a stiff neck 3.a stuffy nose, a cough, and a fever 4.a fever and a sick stomachache 5.a headache 6.a rash
Section AExercise 2 1.You want some aspirin? 2.We ’ d better stretch after we exercise. 3.You should go home and go to bed. 4.Is there anything I can do? 5.Why don ’ t you go home and rest? 6.Next time we ’ ll be more careful.
Section BKey Words infection – becoming ill through contact with bacteria, etc. aerobics – a system of physical conditioning designed to enhance circulatory and respiratory efficiency that involves vigorous, sustained exercise, such as jogging, swimming, or cycling, thereby improving the body's utilization of oxygen
Section BExercise 1 The student has a bad cold.
Section BExercise 2 1. You must sleep more. 2. You have to eat better. 3. You should exercise more.
Section CExercise 1 1. No time. 2. No money. 3. Too tired. 4. Bad weather. 5. Embarrassed.
Section CExercise 2 1. No time: You should take two or three short walks every day. 2. No money: You don ’ t have to join a gym. Walk. 3. Too tired: Exercise every day – it will give you energy. 4. Bad weather: Exercise inside. 5. Embarrassed: Don ’ t feel bad; you should feel great!
Part III Listening Comprehension Test 1. Exercise everyday 2. Get enough sleep. 3. Eat green things. 4. Don ’ t smoke. 5. Don ’ t drink a lot of alcohol.
6. Wear a seatbelt. 7. Drink lots of water. 8. Visit your doctor for regular check- ups. 9. Reduce stress. 10. Spend time with friends and family.
Section AKey Words prawn – any of various edible crustaceans similar to but larger than the shrimps avocado – the edible fruit of a tropical American tree filet – small tender piece of meat without bones
sole – any of various chiefly marine flatfish casserole – a dish, usually of earthenware, glass, or cast iron, in which food is both baked and served Bordeaux – a red or white wine originally produced in the region around Bordeaux, France fizzy – having a lot of bubbles of gas that make a hissing sound
Section AExercise 1 Name: Simons Day: Saturday No. of guests: 4 Time: 9.30 Starters: prawns (1), snails (1), avocado (2) Main courses: pork fillet (2), sole (1), beef casserole (1) Drinks: Bordeaux red, mineral water
Section BKey Words gravy – the juices that drip from cooking meat corn on the cob – maize cooked with all the grains still attached to the stalk mashed – a crushing or grinding
prime rib – cut of meat from the ribs of an animal vinegar – sour liquide made from malt, wine, cider, etc by fermentation and used for flavouring food thousand island – a kind of salad dressing
Section BExercise 1 Woman: fried chicken, biscuits and gravy, potatoes (mashed), chocolate pie, coffee Man: sole, green salad, fruit salad, water
Section BExercise 2 The man. The man ’ s meal contains more vegetables and fruits.
Section CKey Words starchy – containing starch tissue – cells that perform one or more specific functions in the body cholesterol – a white, crystalline substance found in animal tissues and various foods artery – any of a branching system of muscular, elastic tubes that carry blood away from the heart to the cells, tissues, and organs of the body
deficiency – a lack or shortage, especially of something essential to health citrus – edible fruits that have a leathery, aromatic rind calcium – chemical element found as a compound in bones and teeth iodine – non-metallic element found in sea water and seweed anaemia – condition of the blood caused by a lack of red corpuscles, making a person look pale lentils – plant grown for its small bean-like seeds molasses – thick dark syrup drained from raw sugar during the refining process
Section CExercise 1 1. Carbohydrates: They produce energy. 2. Protein: It is used for tissue building. 3. Fat: It produces energy. 4. Vitamins: Vitamin A is good to vision, skin and resist infection. Vitamin C prevents colds and low energy states. 5. Minerals: Calcium helps build our bones and teeth. Iron prevents anaemia.
Section CExercise 2 1. Bread, potatoes and sugar. 2. They can be converted to fat and cause a condition of overweight. 3. Meat and cheese. 4. 70g
5. It may cause increased cholesterol levels in the blood. 6. 40 7. Vitamin A: carrots, rose-hips, liver Vitamin C: oranges and other citrus fruit 8. Calcium: milk Iron: liver, lentils, molasses, dates
Part III Listening Comprehension Test 1.It is food (either a plant or animal) that has been altered in the laboratory by scientists. 2. They need fewer pesticides. They grow better than normal plants. They stay fresh longer after they are harvested.
3. They may dominate other plants in the environment. They might hurt wild animals and insects. They might even hurt the people who eat them.
Simulated Listening Test 1 Section A 1. C 6. C 2. B 7. C 3. A 8. A 4. C 9. B 5. B
Section B 10.B 11.D 12.D 13.D 14.B 15.D Section C 16. the objectives and requirements 17. reading and writing 18. library research 19. participate in the discussion 20. the evaluation criteria
Simulated Listening Test 2 Section A 1. B 6.D 2. A 7.B 3. C 8.C 4. B 9.A 5. D
Section B 10.C 11.C 12.A 13.D 14.D 15.A Section C 16. What makes people happy 17. Happy people are satisfied with themselves. 18. Happy people are optimistic. 19. Happy people have good relationships with other people. 20. Psychology
Section BKey Words temperament – the manner of thinking, behaving, or reacting characteristic of a specific person autonomy – the condition or quality of being autonomous; independence pragmatist – a person who acts in a practical way impulsive – inclined to act on impulse rather than thought integrity – steadfast adherence to a strict moral or ethical code
Section BExercise 1 1. Because the strengths of one worker can overcome the weaknesses of another. 2. They refer to the importance that we give to ideas, things, or people. 3. It refers to the distinctive way you think, feel, and react to the world.
Section BExercise 2 1.Traditionalists: value hard work, doing things the way they ’ ve always been done, loyalty to the organization, and the authority of leaders
2.Humanists: value quality of life, autonomy, loyalty to self, and leaders who are attentive to workers ’ needs 3.Pragmatists: value success, achievement, loyalty to career, and leaders who reward people for hard work
Section CKey Words Rudyard Kipling – British writer who won the 1907 Nobel Prize for literature twain – two angular – having, forming, or consisting of an angle or angles verse – work of a poet filial piety – respect for and obedience to a parent
Confucian – of, relating to, or characteristic of Confucius, his teachings, or his followers Taoist – of, relating to, or characteristic of a Chinese religion Taoism Buddhist – of, relating to, or characteristic of an Asian religion Buddhism inherit – to receive from an ancestor
Section CExercise 1 I. Nhan and Hung are different in looks. A. Nhan 1. physical appearance: short, small; full, moon-shaped face; small arms and feet; smooth, white skin; look like an early twentieth- century intellectual 2. clothes: formal and traditional
B. Hung 1. physical appearance: tall, muscular and big-boned; straight as an arrow; long and angular face; strong feet and arms; shoulders and chest are hairy, large and full. looks like an American boxer 2. clothes: T-shirts and jeans or sports clothes
II. Nhan and Hung differ in personality. B. Hung 1. self-centered; only smiles when happy 2. likes: science and technology; sun baths; Coca-Cola; rock and roll music
III. Nhan and Hung have different attitudes toward life. B. Hung 1. concerned with material needs 2. affected by western theories of real values
Part III Listening Comprehension Test 1. C 2. C 3. D 4. C 5. A 6. B
Section AExercise 1 1. B 2. A 3. A 4. B 5. A 6. B 7. B
Section BKey Words nuclear family – the family considered as mother, father and children only, and not including any less close relations sibling – a brother or sister hop – to make a quick trip, especially in an airplane
Section CKey Words rivalry – the act of competing or emulating; the state or condition of being a rival ambivalent – of coexistence of opposing attitudes or feelings, such as love and hate, toward a person, an object, or an idea toss – to be thrown here and there; to move about restlessly
Section CExercise 1 1. The battle of the sexes: Husband and wife fight for control of the family. 2. Sibling rivalry: competition and jealousy between brothers and sisters.
3. Generation gap: Parents have difficulty understanding the attitudes and behavior of their children and vice versa. 4. In-law problems: especially when parents try to interfere in the lives of their married children.
Section CExercise 2 1. Today ’ s family tries to be democratic, to give all family members some voice in decision-making. 2. Teenagers are ambivalent about parental control and help. 3. Get out of my life, but first could you drive me and Cheryl to the mall?
4. Parents want to maintain a friendly relationship with their teenagers and guide them toward proper behavior. 5. Arguments may concern such trivial matters as clothing or hair styles. 6. The whole question of who ’ s in charge becomes more complicated when there is divorce and remarriage. 7. Many American children have to adjust to a stepparent living in the home, supervising and disciplining them. When children are tossed back and forth between different authority figures, they sometimes wonder who ’ s in charge.
Part III Listening Comprehension Test 1. C 2. C 3. C 4. A 5. D 6. B
Section AKey Words Nantes – a city of western France irate – extremely angry yacht – any of various relatively small sailing or motor-driven vessels, generally with smart, graceful lines, used for pleasure cruises or racing
Section AExercise 1 Name: Jules Verne Profession: writer Number of books written: over 80 Things depicted in his books: helicopters, submarines, modern weapons, movies with sound, rockets, television
Year of birth: in 1828 Place of birth: Nantes, France Family background: sailors What happened in the following years of Jules Verne ’ s life?
1847: went to Paris to study law 1850: published his first play 1863: published his first novel, Five Weeks in a Balloon 1864: Journey to the Center of the Earth 1865: From the Earth to the Moon 1870: Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea 1873: Around the World in Eighty Days 1874: The Mysterious Island
Section BKey Words Galileo – Italian physicist and astronomer (1564-1562) arcane – known or understood by only a few intrigued – interested formula – a statement, especially an equation, of a fact, rule, principle, or other logical relation
thermodynamics – physics that deals with the relationships between heat and other forms of energy black hole – an extremely small region of space-time with a gravitational field so intense that nothing can escape, not even light quantum mechanics – quantum theory, especially the quantum theory of the structure and behavior of atoms and molecules
equation – a statement asserting the equality of two expressions big bang theory – a cosmological theory holding that the universe originated approximately 20 billion years ago from the violent explosion of a very small agglomeration of matter of extremely high density and temperature glitch – a sudden change synthesizer – electronic musical instrument producing a large number of different sounds, including imitations of other instruments
Section BExercise 1 Name: Stephen Hawking Date of birth: 8 January 1942 Profession: Physicist Where he is from: London Family background: intellectual
1958: built a primitive computer with his friends 1959: won a scholarship to Oxford University 1962: got a degree in Natural Science with honors and went to Cambridge University to pursue a PhD in cosmology
1968: joined the staff of the Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge 1974: became a fellow of the Royal Society 1979: became Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge 1988: wrote A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes
Section CKey Words commitment – state of being dedicated or devoted (to sth.) Methodist – a member of an evangelical Protestant church founded on the principles of John and Charles Wesley in England in the early 18th century and characterized by active concern with social welfare and public morals
Girl Scout – a member of the Girl Scouts, an organization of young women and girls, founded in the United States in 1912 on the plan of the Girl Guides, for character development and citizenship training lobby – to try to influence the thinking of legislators or other public officials for or against a specific cause
Section CExercise 1 Name: Hillary Rodham Clinton Place of birth: Chicago, Illinois Date of birth: October 26, 1947
1) organized food drives 2) served in student government 3) a member of the National Honor Society 4) a member of the local Methodist youth group 5) a Girl Scout
1969: graduated from Wellesley College and enrolled in Yale Law School 1975: married Bill Clinton 1977: started Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families 1992: helped her husband run for president of the United States 1996: published a book about children, It Takes a Village
Section CExercise 2 1. She and her two younger brothers grew up in Park ridge, Illinois, as part of a close-knit family. Early in life, she learned the importance of commitment to family, work, and service. It is this commitment and the belief that we “ all have an obligation to give something of ourselves to our community ” that has helped to shape her role and actions as America ’ s First Lady.
2. After graduating from Yale Law School, Hillary went to work for the Children ’ s Defense Fund, an organization that lobbies for children ’ s welfare. This was the beginning of her career as a defender of the rights of children. In 1992 when her husband first ran for president of the United States, Hillary became a powerful symbol of the changing role and status of women in American society.
Part III Listening Comprehension Test 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. A 5. D 6. C
Section BKey Words solitary – to be the only one or to choose not to be with similar people, animals or things Borneo – a large island in Southeast Asia shard by Malaysia and Indonesia Sumatra – one of the islands of Indonesia Habitat – the natural surroundings in which an animal or plant usually lives
Section BExercise 2 Snow leopard: Central Asia; deer; It is hunted for its fur. Orangutan: tropical rain forest of Southeast Asia; fruit, leaves, insects; It is hunted or captured for zoos. Habitat is being destroyed. Panda: bamboo forests of the mountains of China; bamboo shoots, stems, leaves; from lack of food
Section CKey Words showdown – final test, argument or fight to settle a dispute greed – an excessive desire to acquire or possess more than what one needs or deserves, especially with respect to material wealth bludgeon – to hit with with a heavy club wean – to accustom (the young of a mammal) to take nourishment other than by suckling
inflated – raised or expanded to abnormal levels line one ’ s pockets – make big money poach – to take (fish or game) illegally in defiance of – in spite of; contrary to trophy – a prize or memento harpoon – to strike, kill, or capture with or as if with a spearlike weapon batter – to hit heavily and repeatedly with violent blows
ambergris – a waxy, grayish substance formed in the intestines of sperm whales and found floating at sea or washed ashore. It is added to perfumes to slow down the rate of evaporation. devoid – completely lacking immunize – to render immune mite – a very small object, creature, or particle annihilate – to destroy completely
permeate – to spread or flow throughout; pervade assimilate – to consume and incorporate nutrients into the body after digestion beaver – a large aquatic rodent mole – a small, insectivorous mammal sterile – not producing or incapable of producing offspring
Section CExercise 1 1. B 2. C 3. C 4. B 5. B 6. A, B, E, F 7. A, C, D
Section CExercise 2 _G_ 1. much of wild life will have died out _C_ 2. we can ’ t of course rule out _D_ 3. it ’ s going to turn out _A_ 4. it ’ s hard to make out _H_ 5. well-intentioned people who start out _F_ 6. danger to other forms of life, including humans, comes out _B_ 7. not to say, leaks out _E_ 8. our time is running out
Part III Listening Comprehension Test 1. B 2. A 3. D 4. B 5. C 6. D
Section AKey Words instrumental – performed on or written for an instrument harmonica – a small, rectangular instrument consisting of a row of free reeds set back in air holes, played by exhaling or inhaling. Also called mouth organ
Celtic – One of an Indo-European people originally of central Europe and spreading to western Europe, the British Isles, and southeast to Galatia during pre-Roman times, especially a Briton or Gaul banjo – a fretted stringed instrument improvise – to compose without preparation syncopation – a shift of accent in a passage or composition that occurs when a normally weak beat is stressed
polyrhythm – the use or an instance of simultaneous contrasting rhythms double bass – the largest bowed stringed instrument in the modern orchestra DJ – an announcer who presents and comments on popular recorded music, especially on the radio (disc jockey)
percussion – the section of a band or an orchestra composed of percussion instruments funk – a type of popular music combining elements of jazz, blues, and soul and characterized by syncopated rhythm and a heavy, repetitive bass line
genre – a category of artistic composition, as in music or literature, marked by a distinctive style, form, or content turntable – t he circular horizontal rotating platform of a phonograph on which the record is placed staple – main or principal element synthesizer – an electronic instrument, often played with a keyboard, that combines simple waveforms to produce more complex sounds
Section AExercise 1 1 Blues : African American spirituals and work songs; brought by slaves to southern United States, especially the Mississippi Delta; guitar, piano, harmonica, bass,drums, saxophone
2 Country : traditional folk music, Celtic music and blues; early 20th century, Southwestern United States; guitar, fiddle,harmonica, banjo 3 Jazz : blues and other African American music; start of the 20th century, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States; saxophone, drums, trumpet, piano, guitar, double bass
4 Rock & Roll: blues, R&B, country and western music; late 1940s United States; guitar, bass, drumsand keyboards 5 Hip-hop: Jamaican Dancehall toasting, disco, and funk; early 1970s South Bronx, New York City; turntable, rapping, drum machine, synthesizer
Section BKey Words curriculum – all the courses of study offered by an educational institution mundane – relating to, characteristic of, or concerned with commonplaces; ordinary aesthetic – characterized by a heightened sensitivity to beauty
Section BExercise 1 1. a basic form of communication 2. the world ’ s peoples 3. the learning process 4. the imagination and self-expression 5. the basics 6. art
Section CKey Words hustle and bustle – busy energetic activity rev up – to excite meditative – characterized by or prone to meditation
Section CExercise 1 1. helps you relax 2. reduces level of stress 3. increases academic skills (helping you concentrate and memorize more easily)
Section CExercise 2 1. We all have some form of stress. Whether it ’ s due to work, school reports, family, or relationships, we could all use a break now and then. Yet, in the hustle and bustle of everyday life, a lot of us can ’ t find the time to just drop everything and take it easy.
2. Campbell doesn ’ t stop with Mozart. He says that Bach can stimulate the mind, military marches can rev up the body, and religious music can help create a meditative mood. It ’ s important to find what works best for your situation.
Part III Listening Comprehension Test 1. B 2. B 3. C 4. A 5. C 6. D 7. D
Section AExercise 2 _e_ buck _d_ curb _j_ pinch pennies _m in the hole _a_ make ends meet _l_ loaded _k_ budget
b_ keep track of _i_ run out _c_ pay through the nose _g_ knack _f_ blow _h_ strapped for cash
Section BKey Words at one ’ s fingertips – readily or instantly available baby boom – a sudden, large increase in the birthrate, especially the one in the United States after World War II from 1947 through 1961 baby boomer – a member of a baby- boom generation
Section BExercise 1 financial emergencies, secure future, at their fingertips, goals, basic, in the baby boomer group, added, monthly salary, in addition to, rise up, blowing up, from paycheck, deeper into debt, behind, forced into homelessness, overwhelming, cent, bills, save, portion, $10, 13%, 60, 5.6 million
Section BExercise 2 1. Grace thinks most people don ’ t care about saving for the future. (do) 2. It is easy to get information to help plan for your financial future. (hard) 3. According to grace, people need to have two months of salary saved. (3-6) 4. Baby boomers may have to help their children or their parents. (and) 5. Many common financial emergencies happen expectedly. (unexpectedly)
6. Younger people are good at saving money. (bad) 7. People who can ’ t pay their bills may sell everything. (lose) 8. Saving $10 a week is a bad way to start. (good) 9. Thirty percent is a reasonable rate of interest, according to Grace. (13) 10. If you start young enough, it is possible to save billions of dollars before you retire. (millions)
Section CKey Words checking accounts – a bank account in which checks may be written against amounts on deposit ATM – Automatic Teller Machine sales slip – sales receipt debit – an item of debt as recorded in an account indebtedness – the state of being indebted
Section AKey Words pay off – to effect profit well-rounded – comprehensively developed and well-balanced in a range or variety of aspects remedial – intended to correct or improve deficient skills in a specific subject
Section AExercise 1 1.It means good results – the more you learn, the more you earn. 2.elective courses 3.500,000 4.either for new vocational skills or for personal growth 5.remedial/developmental classes in reading, writing, and math
Section BExercise 1 1. What are the two main categories of institutions of higher learning? 1) public 2) Private 2. What are the three major groups of higher learning classified by programs and degrees? 1) community colleges / junior colleges 2) 4-year colleges 3) universities
3. What are the three differences between a college and a university? 1) A university is usually bigger in size than a college. 2) A university offers a wider range of undergraduate programs plus graduate studies. 3) A university has obligation to conduct research.
Section BExercise 2 1.All schools get money from tuition and private contributors. 2.Public schools receive state funding. 3.In terms of tuition fees, permanent residents benefit most from public schools of the state to which they belong.
4.Community colleges offer only the first two years of undergraduate studies – the freshman and sophomore years. 5.Community colleges enroll students who prepare to transfer to a 4-year school for their third and fourth years – junior and senior years. 6.Community colleges also offer 1- or 2- year job-training programs.
Part III Listening Comprehension Test Report One 1. The China Youth Development Foundation 2. (1) build Project Hope primary schools in poor rural areas; (2) establish Project Hope scholarships in high schools and universities; (3) carry out distance education initiatives; (4)train rural teachers.
3. domestic and overseas 4. China ’ s middle and western regions. 5. 93.9%, 63.5%
Report Two 6. character, citizenship 7. split over 8. right from wrong 9. angered, confused 10. honesty, caring
Section A Exercise 1 1.research master ’ s degrees, professional master ’ s degrees Ph.D. degrees 2.research master ’ s degrees 3.professional master ’ s degrees 4.Because they do not lead to doctoral programs. 5.their departments and program advisors
Section AExercise 2 1.Research master ’ s degrees: 1) completion and defense of an independent thesis; 2) passing of comprehensive examinations; 3) participation in advanced seminars and courses. 4) completion of between 30 and 60 credit hours; 5) one or two academic years of full-time study
2.professional master ’ s degrees: 1) a similar program of study; 2) completion of a supervised project or report; 3) completion of between 36 and 48 units; 4) one to two years of full-time study 3. Ph.D. degrees: 1) 3 years beyond the master ’ s; 2) pass oral and written examinations; 3) produce a long and comprehensive research paper; 3) read one or two foreign languages
Section BExercise 1 A = Excellent B = Above Average C = Average D = Below Average F = Failure
Section CKey Words suspend – to bar for a period from a privilege, office, or position, usually as a punishment transfer – to withdraw from one educational institution or course of study and enroll in another endeavor – a conscientious or concerted effort
Section CExercise 1 1. To tell Mr. Arn the school ’ s decision to discontinue his studies. 2. A passing grade is unacceptable in a graduate school and that the decision can ’ t be changed. 3. Mr. Arn can reapply if he wishes. 4. He ’ ll have trouble with the immigration. 5. It will be a shame to his family. 6. He insists on his decision, but offers to help Mr. Arn to transfer to another school.
Part III Listening Comprehension Test 1.C 2.B 3.A 4.D 5.D 6.D
Section AKey Words verify – to determine or test the truth or accuracy of friction – conflict, as between persons having dissimilar ideas or interests; clash provoke – to bring about; induce
Section AExercise 1 1. Reporting language 2. Inferential language 3. Judgmental language
Section AExercise 2 1. Reporting language consists of statements based on observation. 2. The words of reporting language are concrete and specific. 3. Information conveyed by reporting language can be confirmed by the listener as well as the speaker. 4. People usually accept reporting language because they can check it for accuracy. 5. In conversation, you can often avoid friction by using reporting language.
B. Inferential Language 1. Inferential language uses statements that draw conclusions by a reasoning process that may or may not be faulty. 2. Inferences blend assumptions, knowledge, experiences, and attitudes into statements that infer or set up opinions about a subject. 3. Inferential statements reflect the mindset of the speaker. 4. If you monitor your own speech, you ’ ll find inferences to be common and convenient. 5. To improve, you might adjust your comments to be closer to reporting language.
C. Judgmental Language 1. Judgmental language contains statements that evaluate good/bad, right/wrong, ugly/pretty, and so forth. 2 Judgments about what we like or dislike are so frequent that we don ’ t always recognize them when we speak. 3. Judgmental statements can easily slip off our tongues. 4. To avoid sounding too critical, you should add the phrase “ to me ” or “ I believe ” or “ as I see it ” when you state your outlook. 5. If you qualify the statement as your viewpoint, you will not offend or provoke an argument.
Section BExercise 2 _g_ couch potato _e_ to chill out _b_ cheapskate _a_ dimwit _d_ flake _h_ space cadet _f_ worrywart _c_ mind-blowing _c_ phenomenal
Section CExercise 1 1. You learn practical things like vocabulary. 2. You learn someone else ’ s point of view. 3. You can see what it would be like to be a different person. 4. You can lean about different cultures.
5. You learn different styles of writing. 6. You can be inspired by the characters. 7. You learn to develop your imagination. 8. You learn facts about different subjects.
Part III Listening Comprehension Test 1. A 2. B 3. D 4. B 5. C 6. D
Section BExercise 1 1. It means the power to govern is divided between the national (federal) government and the state governments. 2. ownership of property, divorce, and education 3. state laws 4. governor 5. a trial court, an appellate (appeals) court, and a supreme court 6. counties, cities, towns, and villages
Section CKey Words assassinate – to murder (a prominent person) by surprise attack, as for political reasons oath – a solemn, formal declaration or promise to fulfill a pledge nomination – the act or an instance of appointing a person to office
Section CExercise 2 1. In his first message to Congress President Arthur proposed a new civil service system that would let ability, not politics, decide who got government jobs. The Republican Party leaders opposed this proposal because the civil service system would stop them from giving federal jobs to their supporters. It would destroy much of their power. These Republican leaders controlled the Congress. They refused to act on the civil service proposal.
2. New cases of dishonesty were discovered in government departments. The public began to demand laws to clean up the civil service. In 1882 a new Congress was elected. The new Congress was controlled by the Democratic Party. President Arthur again appealed for civil service reform. This time he got results. The new Congress passed the Civil Service Bill, which required 10 percent of all federal jobs to be filled through competitive examinations.
3. Chester Arthur ’ s efforts for honest government won him much support from the people, but he could not win the support of his own Republican Party. He failed to win the Presidential nomination in the Republican Nominating Convention in 1884.
Part III Listening Comprehension Test 1. the Democrats and the Republicans 2. The Democrats: liberals The Republicans: conservatives 3. The Democratic Party supports the poor and the middle-class worker The Republican Party supports big business and the rich 4. The Democratic: donkey The Republican: elephant
1. 1995 2. They were attracted by the job ’ s stability, guaranteed health care, pension and “ practical profits ”. 3. 100 4. The website broke due to high traffic/visitation and had to be maintained. 5. 3,880 Talk Two
Section A Exercise 1 Step 1: Do a self-assessment Step 2: Gather information about different occupations Step 3: Get the skills you need Step 4: Learn how to find a job
Section AExercise 2 Step 1: find out about your interests, skills, and personality; take a formal survey, or write down the things you like to do and the things you are good at. Step 2: read books and magazines that tell about different jobs; talk to people about different kinds of jobs
Step 3: get more education at a college, university, or technical school or learn on the job Step 4: go to job interviews; present yourself in a resume
Section B Exercise 1 1. A secretarial job 2. Because she didn ’ t have experience. 3. Ten 4. At a recording company 5. Upset, sick of looking for a job 6. Encouraging Anne
Section BExercise 2 1. Don ’ t let it get you down. 2. Something will turn up. 3. Don ’ t give up now. 4. It ’ ll work out. 5. Look on the bright side.
Section CKey Words O-level – Ordinary Level. (formerly in British education) examination of basic standard in the General Certificate of Education make a fuss about – to trouble or worry over trifles dogsbody – one who does menial work; a drudge
worked up – excited; mad encyclopaedia – book or set of books giving information about every branch of knowledge, or about one particular subject, with articles in alphabetical order haematology – scientific study of the blood and its diseases squint – (abnormal condition causing the) squinting position of an eyeball or eyeballs bunch – a group of people
Section CExercise 1 1. Sales Reps. (representatives) 2. Not very promising 3. By starting on the factory floor; hard work
4. It teaches people how to use their mind, exercise their judgment, distinguish the essential from the inessential. 5. Applied psychology 6. No 7. Interview the next group of candidates himself
Section CExercise 2 Director: get on with Saunders: promising / O-levels Director: make such a fuss / floor, / dogsbody Saunders: use, exercise, distinguish Director: worked up Saunders: out of
Director: engage Saunders: fond of / started out Saunders: subconscious Saunders: presentable, squint, boxing Director: crossed-eyed / analyzing / samples / knocking / orders? Director: bunch
Section AKey Words surname – also called family name, second name, last name Christian name – also called first name, given name
Section AExercise 1 1. They would think he was annoyed with them. 2. Everybody 3. He says some large firms have one canteen for everybody but most large firms have separate canteens. 4. Because it fosters the feeling that there ’ s between “ them ” and “ us. ” 5. They are on the same side of the fence.
Section AExercise 2 1. It fosters the feeling that there ’ s between them and us. (c ) 2. Workers and management are on the same side of the fence. (b ) 3. Employees are not concerned by the managers. (d ) 4. Workers are looked down upon. (a )
Section BKey Words fringe benefits – extra benefit, esp given to an employee in addition to salary or wages motivate – to provide with an incentive; move to action; impel dividend – a share of profits received by a stockholder
Section BExercise 1 1. What workers wanted in the past: 1) increases in salary 2) fringe benefits 3) promotion
2. What workers want today: 1) personal satisfaction 2) feel proud of their work. 3) their bosses to treat them better 4) to participate more in management discussions of the company.
Section BExercise 2 1. Because he has written a book on business management 2. No. 3. 1) they don ’ t want the headaches of being a supervisor or a manager 2) they don ’ t want to leave the town or their friends
4. 1) higher level of education 2) higher standard of living 5. 1) Help in planning work and vacation schedules. 2) Take part in management discussion and help work on planning. 3) Participate in profit-sharing and stock dividend plans.
Section CKey Words workshop – an educational seminar or series of meetings emphasizing interaction and exchange of information among a usually small number of participants ground rules – a basic rule of procedure or behavior brainstorm – to engage in or organize shared problem solving scenario – a plot or situation
Section CExercise 1 Ann: not to interrupt other people; not to take things too personally; to criticize ideas, not people; to respect differences
Thomas: the benefit of addressing work-related problems as a group and joining together to come up with a solution Paulina: to understand the needs and concerns of your fellow workers, supervisors, and customers
Part III Listening Comprehension Test 1. Employers use computers, cameras, listening devices and telephones to observe their workers. 2. Telecommunications, insurance, banking 3. 1) It violates human rights. 2) It destroys the feeling of trust between workers and employers. 3) It makes it easier for employers to learn private information about their workers.
Talk Two 4. hippies from the sixties 5. They took a correspondence course in ice-cream making. 6. A business that makes money in a community must give it back to the community. 7. peace and environmental issues 8. $2,500
Section AKey Words give me a break – (informal) an expression used to indicate an idea or a thing is silly or ridiculous hook sth. up – to connect something be happening – (slang) an expression meaning to be newly exciting or fashionable
domain – an area of interest or over which a person has control go nuts – (informal) to go crazy revert to – to go back to a previous condition
Section AExercise 1 Remote control: The buttons are too small, it ’ s easy to press the wrong button, and there are too many different remote controls – for the TV, the VCR, the cable TV and the stereo. Computer: It doesn ’ t speak a language that you can understand.
Section AExercise 2 1. give me a break (informal) : used to indicate an idea or a thing is silly or ridiculous 2. to hook (sth.) up: to connect something 3. to be happening (slang) : to be newly exciting or fashionable 4. to go nuts (informal): to go crazy 5. to revert to (sth.): to go back to a previous condition
Section BKey Words pimple – a small red swelling of the skin inventory – a detailed, itemized list, report, or record of things in one's possession, especially a periodic survey of all goods and materials in stock retina – a delicate, multilayered, light- sensitive membrane lining the inner eyeball and connected by the optic nerve to the brain
Section BExercise 1 1. The smart house provides an enjoyable way of life. 2. It is a great convenience. 3. It provides excellent security and health benefits.
Section BExercise 2 1. Vacuuming and cleaning is done by a robot. The smart house steams all the clothes in the closet and gives ideas on what to wear for that day ’ s weather. Pictures on the walls and temperatures can change to your wish.
2. It can record your favorite TV program when you ’ re not home. It can take inventory, make up a shopping list and order food. It can be controlled through a wall-mounted keyboard, a tele-command or even by voice. E-mail or voice mail can be checked from any TV or computer screen in the house. 3. Air conditioners can kill the flu bug and other harmful viruses. The monitor screens can oversee children in another room. It doesn ’ t need keys. The door unlocks only for the owner.
Section CKey Words gadget – a small specialized mechanical or electronic device interactive – of or relating to a two- way electronic or communications system in which response is direct and continual transmit – to send from one person, thing, or place to another; convey
click – to press the button on a mouse to initiate some action or mark a point on the screen sitcom – situation comedy dapper – neatly dressed; trim virtual – existing or resulting in essence or effect though not in actual fact, form, or name gratification – the condition of being satisfied
Section AKey Words CFC – chlorofluorocarbon 氟氯化碳 recycle – to extract and reuse detergent – a cleansing substance made from chemical compounds phosphate – a salt or an ester of phosphoric acid baking soda – a white crystalline compound used in making beverages etc. vinegar – an impure dilute solution of acetic acid
Section AExercise 1 Person 1: air pollution Person 2: plastic Person 3: CFCs Person 4: carbon dioxide/Water shortage Person 5: toxic chemicals Person 6: deforestation
Section AExercise 2 Person 1: ride a bike Person 2: use cloth bags when shopping Person 3: use a car without an air conditioner Person 4: plant trees and use as little water as possible Person 5: avoid using chemical cleaners Person 6: stop eating beef
Section BKey Words derive – to obtain or receive from a source polymer – any of numerous natural and synthetic compounds tuber – a swollen, fleshy, usually underground stem, such as the potato granule – a small grain or pellet; a particle biodegradable – (of substances) that can be made to rot by bacteria renewable – inexhaustible or replaceable by new growth
Section BExercise 2 1. because this plastic would be truly biodegradable. 2. because it would be a renewable source of plastic.
Section CKey Words depletion – the gradual use or consumption of a resource, especially a natural resource ozone layer – a region of the upper atmosphere, between about 15 and 30 kilometers (10 and 20 miles) in altitude, containing a relatively high concentration of ozone that absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation in a wavelength range not screened by other atmospheric components.Also called ozonosphere
irreversible – impossible to reverse emit – to give or send out matter or energy mass transit – public transport commuter – one that travels regularly from one place to another, as from suburb to city and back
Section CExercise 1 1. Issue being discussed: The positive advances in technology vs. the damage it does to environment.
2. Main points of each speaker: Stevens: Modern innovations in technology cause irreversible damage to environment. Technological advances can ’ t keep up with negative impact. Grant: Technology can reverse environmental damage. Overpopulation can be limited by birth control. Pollution can be cut down by effective means of mass transit
Section CExercise 2 Stevens thinks that technological innovation cannot solve the problems of environmental damage caused by technology itself while Grant thinks that despite the damage caused by technology there are many positive implications of technological innovation for environmental improvement.
Part III Listening Comprehension Test 1. reduce, reuse, recycle 2. to reduce impulse buying 3. They last long so they save you money and the environment in the long run. 4. Recycling means collecting, processing, marketing, and ultimately reusing materials that were once discarded. 5. glass, aluminum, steel, paper and cardboard, plastics
Talk Two 6. 85% and 70% 7. 50% 8. a system of megaparks (large national parks) 9. to protect the forests and help the environment 10. People used to eat its eggs. Now they work in the tourist industry, including acting as guides to take tourists to see the turtles.
Section AExercise 1 Mission Control: reading Captain Daniel Blake: loud and clear Mission Control: in good shape Mission Control: fuel cells Mission Control: mission/ count-down to splash-down/ moon-rock Mission Control: Stand by /lift-off!
Section AExercise 2 1. Are you reading me? 2. Reading you loud and clear. 3. You all in good shape? 4. You better believe it. 5. No problem.
6. All systems go. 7. splash-down 8. Stand by for count-down. 9. count-down 10. lift-off 11. Boy, oh boy, isn ’ t that something!
Section BKey Words lunar – of, involving, caused by, or affecting the moon reminisce – recall, remember barrenness – a tract of unproductive land
configuration – the form, as of a figure, determined by the arrangement of its parts or elements crater – a bowl-shaped depression in a surface fragile – easily broken, damaged, or destroyed infinite – having no boundaries or limits shed – to cause to pour forth
Section BExercise 1 Sentences 3 and 7 are not on the tape.
Section BExercise 2 1. fifth, barren, not a surprise, had studied models of the surface 2. brown, black, blue, bigger than, North Pole 3. fragile, be more careful about their resources, the fragile earth
Section CKey Words blob – small round mass or spot of color aerial – one or more wires or rods for sending or receiving radio waves scarey – causing fright UFO – Unidentified Flying Object
Section CExercise 1 Annie: It ’ s a super evening, isn ’ t it? Joe: I ’ ll say. Sky ’ s covered in stars. Looks like someone ’ s left all the lights on. Shouldn ’ t like to pay that electricity bill. Annie: Well, I don ’ t suppose you ’ ll have to. Hey, what ’ s that? Joe: What ’ s what? Annie: That sort of big orange blob over there. Joe: I can ’ t see any orange blob. Annie: Yes, you can. Look up there.
Joe: Oh, yes, now I ’ ve got it. That ’ s not a blob. Looks more like a soup plate wrong way up, only it ’ s got a kind of aerial or something sticking out of the top. Annie: It looks ever so funny. What on earth can it be, Joe? Joe: How should I know? Probably some new plane or other they ’ re testing at the Research Centre. Whatever it is, it ’ s not much to look at. Annie: I think it ’ s a bit scarey. It ’ s all yellowy now. I think it ’ s getting bigger. Oh Joe, do you — do you think it ’ s one of those UFO things?
Joe: What do you mean? A Flying Saucer? Course not. There ’ s no such thing. Anyway, it ’ s gone now. Annie: It must ’ ve landed or something behind those trees. It couldn ’ t just — well — disappear, could it? Joe: Well, if it ’ s landed, you ’ d better look out. Any minute now we ’ ll be surrounded by little green men with ray guns saying “ Take me to your Leader ”. Annie: Don ’ t, Joe. I didn ’ t like the look of it one little bit. I ’ m glad it ’ s gone.
Section CExercise 2 f_ 1. That sort of big orange blob. c_ 2. Looks more like a soup plate wrong way up. e_ 3. It ’ s got a kind of aerial or something sticking out of the top. b_ 4. It looks ever so funny.
_g_ 5. What on earth can it be? _d_ 6. It ’ s not much to look at. _j_ 7. It ’ s a bit scarey. _i_ 8. It ’ s all yellowy now. _h_ 9. You ’ d better look out. _a_ 10. I didn ’ t like the look of it.
Part III Listening Comprehension Test 1. D 2. A 3. D 4. C 5. B
Simulated Listening Test 3 Section A 1.C 6.B 2.A 7.D 3.C 8.C 4.B 9.D 5.A
Section B 10.D 11.A 12.D 13.C 14.A 15.B Section C 16. It makes our cities more beautiful and interesting. 17. It communicates ideas or concepts. 18. pop art 19. realism 20. surrealism
Simulated Listening Test 4 Section A 1.B 6.A 2.D 7.C 3.C 8.A 4.D 9.D 5.A
Section B 10.B 11.D 12.B 13.B 14.D 15.A Section C 16. perceived risk and factual risk 17. whether the risk is an activity we control. 18. whether the risk is natural. 19. whether the risk is part of an everyday activity. 20. why we worry about some risks more than others.