Presentation on theme: "Tuesday Morning Group ~ January 29, 2008 Leading Good Governance Presenter: Chloe Schwenke, Ph.D. Washington, DC."— Presentation transcript:
Tuesday Morning Group ~ January 29, 2008 Leading Good Governance Presenter: Chloe Schwenke, Ph.D. Washington, DC
Leadership is not a person or a position. It is a complex moral relationship between people, based on trust, obligation, commitment, emotion, and a shared vision of the good. Ethics lie at the heart of all human relationships and hence at the heart of the relationship between leaders and followers. Joanne Ciulla
Presentation Summary A brief “worst case” ~ Somalia Linking good governance to leadership Definitions As essential to “good” governance Some questions for USAID Leadership on the development agenda USAID program areas and leadership Conclusions
Fieldtrip to a failure of ethical leadership ~ Somalia Can ethical leadership save Somalia from approaching a Hobbesian fate? Somalia: An ethical vacuum ~ Traditional Somali ethics and culture uprooted Extremely weak leadership - in ethical terms The weak and vulnerable exploited Even the code of the warrior is meaningless Instead of fighting to protect and defend, leaders and their warriors in Somalia have fought to exterminate
Governance and the moral duties of a state Where do Somalia’s leaders begin? Stopping the bloodshed Addressing technical and administrative obligations Addressing the moral priorities of human well being and survival Means and ends ~ governance is a means, not an end “The state exists to enable the individual to realize the highest quality of life of which he or she is capable…” Aristotle
Quality of governance Measured by quality of life enjoyed by citizens Leadership: Claim a sense of the public good Build a deliberative society Bridge across deep divisions Offer hope Success directly linked to moral character and integrity of leaders, and their ability to build strong institutions Institutions with leaders who articulate and model moral values Checks and balances (against periods of weak leadership)
Defining leadership Leadership is an influence relationship among leaders and followers who intend real changes that reflect their mutual purpose. Leadership has two characteristics: it is multidirectional, influence flows in all directions and not just from the top down; and it is noncoercive, it is not based on authority, power, or dictatorial actions but is based on persuasive behaviors, thus allowing anyone in the relationship freely to argue or disagree and ultimately to drop into or out of the relationship. Joseph Rost
Leadership ≠ Management ≠ Rule Leaders exert influence to transform the status quo in a way that reflects the purposes that they hold mutually with their followers Managers are responsible for efficient and effective transactions, and operate in relationships based on authority. Managers maintain the status quo. Rulers exert their will through force, fear, intimidation, exploitation, or deceitful manipulation to coerce others to achieve the ruler’s goals.
Political will “Political will is the level of commitment that the country – particularly, but not exclusively national government leaders – demonstrates to decentralization and the development of democratic local governance.” USAID Decentralization and Democratic Local Governance Programming Handbook, May 2000 Does “commitment” = influence = transformation of the status quo? Is “political will” a good proxy for “ethical leadership”?
Some questions Whose “political will” is USAID seeking to support in its efforts to foster good governance? Leaders? Managers? Rulers? Does answering “Good governance for who and what?” help to clarify what kind of, and whose, political will to pursue? Means and ends Supporting a shared vision of the public good, or simply creating a secure strategic ally?
Amilcar Cabral Cosmopolitan, yet rooted in his cultural context Product of both Bissau and Cape Verde Strong, politically active family First class education, widely traveled Influence ~ Outstanding personal attributes: intelligence, charm, athleticism, idealism, vision, humility Ethical orientation Deep concern for plight of the poor With Portuguese, resort to violence was a last choice Fatal flaw: inability to retain control of elite power base
Yoweri Museveni Non-elite upbringing, good education Early political awakening advocating for grazing rights of peasants Attended University of Dar es Salaam Strong personal attributes: Charm, charisma, intelligence, excellent memory, visionary, disciplined, courageous, innovative Exemplary early transactional leadership Provided security after years of turmoil Introduced radical decentralization In power since 1986, but Trending from early leadership to management towards growing authoritarianism …rule
John Garang de Mabior Elite Dinka family, foreign education, widely traveled Career military officer, southern patriot Active in the South’s first uprising in 1972 Led the 1983 uprising Died in helicopter crash in 2005 Courageous, strong, resourceful bush commander, intolerant of dissent, aloof, manipulative Focused on the ends - his personal vision - with little or no concern for the morality of the means Serious human rights abuses Exploited child soldiers
Where is “leadership”? If ethical leadership is so important, why isn’t it more prominent in development? Political ramifications of “us” judging “their” leadership ethics Lack of familiarity with ethical analysis, and fears of relativism The Realist dismissal of ethics as irrelevant Are current “leaders” the product of their unethical political systems, or are these systems the products of their “leadership”? Can we groom leaders? Can corrupt leaders be salvaged?
A new global focus on top leadership Global Integrity Alliance Facilitated by the World Bank World Ethics Forum, Oxford, 2006 Paul Collier’s focus on “helping the heroes” A growing literature on leadership: Joseph Rost, Joanne Ciulla, James MacGregor Burns, Al Gini, Bernard Bass… Leadership as influence Transformational and transactional leaders Followership Character and virtue Recognizing leadership throughout society, not just at the top Democratic principle of holding leaders accountable
USAID ~ A new global focus on top leadership? Small beginnings: USAID a major donor for the World Ethics Forum of 2006 in Oxford, England, that focused on ethical leadership USAID Egypt : The Leadership for Education and Development (LEAD) scholarship program, American University, Cairo Creation of an elite cadre of 54 students, all pledged to improve the lives of the people in their home regions. 4 components: academics; leadership; community involvement; ethics and values. Conference for Ministers of Local Government, Kigali, Rwanda: June 2005. Funded by UN, USAID, and the Netherlands, with delegations from DFID, GTZ, World Bank, CIDA, SDC, SIDA, and the EU. The focus included strengthening leadership integrity and ethics
Rule of Law Where is leadership? “In Africa, there is great need for stronger rule of law systems, but many African countries still lack sufficient political will for legal reform or judicial independence. This situation, sadly, is true in many countries around the world.” “The Agency supports CSOs whose advocacy efforts give voice to citizens and expand their influence on the political process.” “Political will is now widely recognized as an essential prerequisite for judicial reform.”
Elections and Political Processes Where is leadership? “USAID programs are designed to help ensure that elections are competitive and reflect the will of an informed citizenry.” “Election commissions may not yet exist or they may lack the technical capacity or political will to administer a fair election.” “Political parties in countries across the globe are viewed as distant, elite organizations unable or unwilling to articulate or represent most citizens’ concerns.”
Civil Society Where is leadership? “As the nexus for participation in governance, civil society is essential in a democracy for political expression and influencing government policy choices.” “The Agency supports these CSOs whose advocacy efforts give voice to citizens and expand their influence on the political process.” ”Strengthening civil society is increasingly seen as a way to counterbalance the exercise of excessive authority by governments and economic and political elites, and as a way to encourage more open dialogue about public policy matters too often decided behind closed doors.”
Governance Where is leadership? “In the past, governance issues were too often tackled in a strictly technical way with attention paid solely to improvements in administration and service delivery in spite of the fact that political issues underlay the poor performance. The result was a lot of failed public administration, decentralization, and civil service reform projects.”
Conclusion Leadership as influence Leadership as a moral relationship – high expectations, high standards Leadership and followership, one process Leading “political will” with a shared vision Leading advocacy on behalf of the public will, the public concern Transforming society and institutions beyond “political issues” Making the most of both transformational and transactional (efficient) leadership Finding ethical leaders and supporting them
Some Ways Forward An explicit focus in DRG programming on the qualities of ethical leadership Foster local dialogue to articulate these values Continue to support international dialogue on universal traits of ethical leadership Consider Paul Collier’s governance charters Training in ethical leadership Celebrating and supporting ethical leaders Holding bad leaders morally accountable Charles Taylor, Slobodan Milosevic Joseph Kony