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2 1. Since this quiz is all about phytochemicals, perhaps we'd better get this question out of the way first. What exactly ARE phytochemicals? Nutrition from the sea, such as plankton Energy-producing substances Vitamins Bioactive plant substances

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4 Phytochemicals are nonnutritive (in other words, they have no calories and do not produce energy) plant chemicals that contain disease-preventing compounds. Hundreds of different phytochemicals have been discovered, and a single serving of a fruit or vegetable may contain dozens. Click to continue

5 2. Phytochemicals are important in preventing or treating all of the following conditions. With which disease is the role of phytochemicals in prevention particularly strongly associated? Cancer Cardiovascular Disease Diabetes Hypertension

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7 Cancer is a disease of abnormal cellular reproduction, so it stands to reason that phytochemicals, which strengthen cell walls and prevent cell damage from oxidation, play an important part in its prevention. It is estimated that two-thirds of current cancer cases are preventable and that ONE-THIRD are preventable by diet alone. Click to continue

8 3. Eat your GREEN. Cruciferous vegetables are particularly rich phytochemical sources. Which of the vegetables below is not a member of this group? Celery Kohlrabi Brussels sprouts Broccoli

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10 Cruciferous vegetables contain potent cancer fighters called INDOLES and SULFORAPHANES, among at least four others. Some people find that the smell of these compounds in their veggies (cauliflower is also a member of this group, as are cabbage and bok choy) takes some getting used to, but the health benefits are obviously worth it. Celery, while not a cruciferious veggie, contains the phytochemical BUTYL PHTALIDE, which can help lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Click to continue

11 4. Eat your RED. LYCOPENE is one of the hardest-working phytochemicals, protecting us against cancer, heart disease, and many other disorders. What seems to increase the absorption of lycopene by the human body? Sunlight Avoiding added fats or oils Eating vegetable products with animal products Processing tomatoes by canning them or making them into ketchup

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13 Processing tomatoes increases lycopene's bioavailability, as does adding a small amount of fat, preferably a "good fat" like olive oil. In addition to tomato products like sauce, paste, juice, and ketchup, lycopene is also found in other red foods like guava, rosehips, watermelon and pink grapefruit. Make sure you buy the reddest red fruits you can find for the most lycopene. Click to continue

14 Eat your BLUE-PURPLE Eat your WHITE-GREEN Eat your ORANGE
5. Eat your ? Since this question is about the phytochemicals from the Allium family, such as ALLYL SULFIDES and AJOENE, what should this question be titled? Eat your BLUE-PURPLE Eat your WHITE-GREEN Eat your ORANGE Eat your BROWN

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16 The wonderful Allium family contains members like onions, garlic, leeks, chives, shallots, and scallions. In addition to making food delicious, the white-green group has health benefits such as preventing heart disease (by thinning blood a little, thus making clots less likely to form in blood vessels), lowering cholesterol (especially "bad" or LDL cholesterol), and preventing many cancers. Click to continue

17 Anthocyanins Plant estrogens Limonoids Lignans
6. Eat your RED-PURPLE. Although some antioxidant phytochemicals may be found in food that people don't particularly like (but should probably try anyway), almost everyone likes strawberries, cherries, blueberries and raspberries. Which of the following phytochemicals are particularly abundant in deeply pigmented fruits such as these? Anthocyanins Plant estrogens Limonoids Lignans

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19 ANTHOCYANINS (over 300 have been discovered
ANTHOCYANINS (over 300 have been discovered!) are abundant in dozens of fruits and are powerful antioxidants. They are particularly useful in reducing cholesterol. LIMONOIDS are also phytochemicals. They are found in citrus and help protect against cancer. Plant estrogens are found in soy, and flax is a good source of lignans, both of which are being studied as cancer preventers. Click to continue

20 7. You can obtain the phytochemical benefit of red wine without the alcohol by drinking red or purple grape juice. True False

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22 You've probably heard about the health benefits of red wine, which contains the potent antioxidant power of FLAVONOIDS, ANTHOCYANINS, and RESVERATROL. If you don't want the alcohol, grape juice confers the same benefits. Always choose juice with as little added sugar as possible. Click to continue

23 8. Eat your YELLOW-ORANGE
8. Eat your YELLOW-ORANGE. CAROTENOIDS, of which beta-carotene is the most famous, provide protection against heart disease and cancer and also stimulate immune function. Another important carotenoid is LUTEIN, which has a particularly important function in the prevention of what disorder? Prostatic hypertrophy Schizophrenia Macular degeneration Toxemia of pregnancy

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25 Lutein is found in the retina of the eye and its antioxidant function there helps prevent macular degeneration, which can lead to blindness. Lutein occurs in mangoes, papayas, oranges, kiwi, peaches, squash, peas, lima beans, green beans, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, kale, lettuce, prunes, pumpkin, sweet potatoes and honeydew melon. (Many carotenoids, of which there are more than 600 known, are found in green as well as yellow/orange plant sources, and some are even found in animals...a carotenoid is responsible for the pink color of salmon and shrimp.) (info from Click to continue

26 9. You can find phytochemicals in unlikely places
9. You can find phytochemicals in unlikely places...the crunch of your pickle (CALCIUM PECTATE), or the bite of your chili pepper (CAPSAICIN). Which food is incorrectly matched with its antioxidant? All are correct Turmeric (CURCUMIN) Root beer (SAPONIN) Licorice (GLYCYRRHIZIN)

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28 Antioxidant activity from root beer, licorice, and Indian food
Antioxidant activity from root beer, licorice, and Indian food? Absolutely. In fact, some foods you might not have thought of as particularly healthy, such as tea, parsley, ginger, and caraway, are busily repairing cell damage and preventing disease every time we enjoy them. Click to continue

29 10. What should all of us do to ensure we have plenty of phytochemicals in our diets?
Phytochemicals? We don't need no stinkin' phytochemicals! Take supplements Choose a variety of brightly colored fruits and vegetables every day Avoid sugar, fat, and carbohydrates

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31 Unfortunately, the typical Western diet is sadly lacking in phytochemicals for the simple reason that most of us don't eat enough fruit and vegetables. The US Department of Agriculture sponsors a "Five a Day for Good Health" program to encourage this vital dietary change, especially among children. In Okinawa, where a traditional diet includes as many as TEN servings of vegetables a day, people live to be centenarians with great regularity. We can too...if we eat our colors! Click to continue

32 The End

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