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Water 60% of body weight Recommended Levels: Men: ~13 cups Women: ~9 cups.

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Presentation on theme: "Water 60% of body weight Recommended Levels: Men: ~13 cups Women: ~9 cups."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water 60% of body weight Recommended Levels: Men: ~13 cups Women: ~9 cups

2 Characteristics of Water It has polarity polar substances (like proteins and ions) easily dissolve in water It has a temperature stabilizing effect it has a high heat capacity and high heat of vaporization allows a stable body temperature allows easy loss of heat It has cohesiveness and so acts as a lubricant water has cohesiveness which imparts surface tension It acts as an excellent solvent due to water’s polar covalent bonds it is an ideal medium for metabolic reactions

3 Hydrogen Bond Examples

4 Water Acting as a Solvent

5 Acid-Base Balance pH is a measure of the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration [ ] in a solution. The greater the [H+], the lower the pH or more acidic a solution is. Acids donate H+ when placed in water increasing the [H+] in the solution Bases donate hydroxide ions (OH-) ions decreasing the [H+] in solution pH measures [H+]:[OH-] ratio 10 fold change at each 0.1 change Buffers buffers prevent changes in pH carbonic acid/bicarbonate system

6 Common Acids and Bases

7 Minerals

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11 Sodium Chief Functions: –Osmotic balance –Nervous system functioning –pH balance –Muscle contractions Excess Salt Intake Leads to: –Increased blood pressure –Cardiovascular disease –Cerebral hemorrhage –Stroke –Stomach cancer DASH: –Low sodium –High potassium –Increased fruits/veggies/whole grains –Decreased fats Upper Tolerable Intake Level: –2300 mg DRI: – mg Increased Risks: –Diabetes –Hypertension –Kidney disease –Over 50 –African descent –Parents with hypertension Processed and Fast Foods make up 75% of salt in US diet

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15 Phytochemicals biologically active chemical compounds in plants Carotenoids Flavonoids Phenolic Acids Phytoestrogens Organosulfur Compounds Indoles and Sulforaphanes

16 Carotenoids Lowers Cardiovascular Disease Risk Lowers Age-Related Eye Diseases Cataracts Macular degeneration Lowers Certain Cancer Risk Prostate Esophagus stomach Agents: Alpha-carotene Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Tomatoes Guava Pink grapefruit Watermelon Red, Orange and Deep Green veggies and Fruits: Carrots Cantaloupe Sweet potatos Apricots Kale Spinach Pumpkin Tomatoes Acts as an Antioxidant

17 Flavonoids Lowers Cardiovascular Disease Risk Lowers Cancer Risk Possible Action: Reduced Inflammation Reduced Blood clotting Reduced Blood pressure Detoxification of carcinogens Reduction in replication of cancerous cells Berries Black and green tea Chocolate Purple grapes and juice Citrus fruits Olives Soy products Flaxseed Whole grains *Memory Aid *Dark Chocolate may be as good as Red Wine *Limonene

18 Resveratrol Flavonoid found in purple grapes, red wine, and peanuts Acts as an antioxidant to reduce heart disease and cancer May offset artery-damaging effects of high-fat diets

19 Phenolic Acids May trigger enzyme production to make carcinogens water soluble, facilitating excretion Coffee beans Apples Blueberries Cherries Grapes Oranges Pears Prunes Strawberries Oats Potatoes soybeans Tannins: inhibit carcinogen activation and cancer promotion Black-eyed peas, grapes, lentils, red & white wine, tea

20 Phytoestrogens Plant relative of human hormone: estrogen Act as an antioxidant Block estrogen activity in cells, possibly reducing some specific cancers: Breast Colon Ovaries Prostate Flaxseed Whole grains Soybeans

21 Lignan Compounds that are converted into biologically active phytoestrogens by bacteria in the intestine. Some evidence suggests that it can educe cancer risk Large doses could interfere with vitamin or mineral absorption Flaxseed

22 Organosulfur Compounds May speed production of carcinogen- destroying enzymes or slow production of carcinogen-activating enzymes May lessen heart disease Fight fungal infections Reduce the clotting of blood Improve levels of blood cholesterol Chives Garlic Leeks Onions

23 Indoles and Sulforaphanes Cruciferous Vegetables: May trigger production of enzymes that block DNA damage from carcinogens

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