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The DIGESTIVE System. Digestion The breaking down of food by both mechanical and chemical means The breaking down of food by both mechanical and chemical.

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Presentation on theme: "The DIGESTIVE System. Digestion The breaking down of food by both mechanical and chemical means The breaking down of food by both mechanical and chemical."— Presentation transcript:

1 The DIGESTIVE System

2 Digestion The breaking down of food by both mechanical and chemical means The breaking down of food by both mechanical and chemical means Mechanical Digestion - various movements of the alimentary canal that aid in chemical digestion Mechanical Digestion - various movements of the alimentary canal that aid in chemical digestion –Grinding of teeth to soften food –Churning of food by smooth muscles to mix with digestive enzymes Chemical Digestion - series of catabolic reactions (enzymes) that break down large molecules into smaller molecules Chemical Digestion - series of catabolic reactions (enzymes) that break down large molecules into smaller molecules

3 Absorption The passage of digested food from the alimentary canal into the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems for distribution to body cells

4 Defecation (Excretion) The elimination of indigestible substances from the alimentary canal

5 Ingestion Taking food into the body (EATING)

6 Movement (Propulsion) Passage of food along the alimentary canal

7 Types of Digestion Chemical digestion is the chemical breakdown of larger nutrient molecules to smaller ones which can be absorbed and used by the body. Chemical digestion is the chemical breakdown of larger nutrient molecules to smaller ones which can be absorbed and used by the body. Mechanical digestion is the physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces. Mechanical digestion is the physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces.

8 Gastrointestinal Tract (Alimentary Canal) A continuous tube running through the ventral body cavity extending from the mouth to the anus A continuous tube running through the ventral body cavity extending from the mouth to the anus Organs of the Alimentary Canal Organs of the Alimentary Canal –mouth- pharynx- esophagus –stomach- S. intestine- L. intestine Accessory Organs Accessory Organs –teeth- tongue –salivary glands- liver –gallbladder- pancreas

9 Structures of the Digestive System Structures of the Digestive System

10 1

11 Mouth (Oral or Buccal Cavity) Cheeks Cheeks Lips (Labia) Lips (Labia) –Vestibule Hard Palate Hard Palate Soft Palate Soft Palate –Uvula Tongue Tongue –Papillae –Lingual Frenulum

12 Oral Cavity

13 Pharynx Also called the throat. Also called the throat. Serves as a passageway for food and air. Serves as a passageway for food and air. Also helps in the formation of words. Also helps in the formation of words.

14 Esophagus Muscular tube located posterior to the trachea Muscular tube located posterior to the trachea About 10 inches long About 10 inches long Does not participate in digestive processes - simply a transport corridor Does not participate in digestive processes - simply a transport corridor Food is pushed through the esophagus by peristaltic action Food is pushed through the esophagus by peristaltic action Forces food down into the stomach Forces food down into the stomach –Esophageal hiatus - opening in the diaphragm for the esophagus

15

16 Lining of the Esophagus

17 Stomach J-shaped enlargement of the digestive tract located just below the diaphragm J-shaped enlargement of the digestive tract located just below the diaphragm Superior portion - continuation of the esophagus Superior portion - continuation of the esophagus Inferior portion empties into the duodenum Inferior portion empties into the duodenum Position and size of the stomach varies from individual to individual Position and size of the stomach varies from individual to individual

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19 Histology of the Stomach Composed of the same four tissue types as the other structures of the alimentary canal Composed of the same four tissue types as the other structures of the alimentary canal When the stomach is empty the mucosa lie in large folds called rugae When the stomach is empty the mucosa lie in large folds called rugae mucosa contains millions of tiny openings called gastric pits that open into gastric glands mucosa contains millions of tiny openings called gastric pits that open into gastric glands –Secretes digestive enzymes and a fluid called gastric juice (2-3 liter per day)

20 Histology of the Stomach

21 Small Intestine The next part of the alimentary canal. The next part of the alimentary canal. Divided into three sections – the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Divided into three sections – the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. In the duodenum, chemical digestion is completed. In the duodenum, chemical digestion is completed. The majority of nutrients are absorbed in the jejunum and ileum. The majority of nutrients are absorbed in the jejunum and ileum.

22 Small Intestines

23 Large Intestine The last part of the alimentary canal. The last part of the alimentary canal. Responsible for the absorption of water, compaction of feces, and the production of Vitamin K. Responsible for the absorption of water, compaction of feces, and the production of Vitamin K.

24 Large Intestines

25 Accessory Organs The accessory organs include the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and salivary glands which will be discussed in more detail later on in this unit. The accessory organs include the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and salivary glands which will be discussed in more detail later on in this unit.

26 Accessory Organs

27 Salivary Glands Paired accessory structures that lie outside the oral cavity Paired accessory structures that lie outside the oral cavity Secrete their contents (saliva) into ducts that empty into the mouth Secrete their contents (saliva) into ducts that empty into the mouth Parotid Glands - underneath the ears Parotid Glands - underneath the ears Submandibular Glands - under the mandible Submandibular Glands - under the mandible Sublingual Glands - under the tongue Sublingual Glands - under the tongue

28 Salivary Glands

29 Saliva Fluid secreted by the salivary glands Fluid secreted by the salivary glands 99.5% water 99.5% water.5% solutes.5% solutes –chlorides- bicarbonates- sodium –potassium- phosphates- urea –uric acid- globulin-mucin –serum albumin Salivary amylase - digestive enzyme Salivary amylase - digestive enzyme –begins carbohydrate (starch) digestion in the mouth Lysozyme - destroys bacteria in the mouth Lysozyme - destroys bacteria in the mouth

30 Digestion in the Mouth Mechanical Digestion Mechanical Digestion –Chewing (Mastication) Tongue manipulates the food Tongue manipulates the food Teeth grind up the food and mix it with saliva Teeth grind up the food and mix it with saliva The result of mechanical digestion is a soft flexible mass of food called a bolus The result of mechanical digestion is a soft flexible mass of food called a bolus Chemical Digestion Chemical Digestion –Salivary amylase initiates the breakdown of carbohydrates –Only chemical digestion in the mouth

31 Teeth Accessory structures of the digestive system Accessory structures of the digestive system Deciduous teeth (baby teeth) - 20 Deciduous teeth (baby teeth) - 20 Permanent teeth - 32 Permanent teeth - 32 Incisors (8) - 4 on top, 4 on bottom Incisors (8) - 4 on top, 4 on bottom –chisel shaped - front of mouth Canines (4) - 2 on top, 2 on bottom Canines (4) - 2 on top, 2 on bottom –sharp pointed tearing teeth Premolars (8) - 4 on top, 4 on bottom Premolars (8) - 4 on top, 4 on bottom Molars (12) - 6 on top, 6 on bottom Molars (12) - 6 on top, 6 on bottom –broad, flat, crushing teeth

32 Teeth

33 Portions of the Tooth Crown - exposed portion of the tooth above the gum line Crown - exposed portion of the tooth above the gum line Neck - constricted junction line in the tooth between the crown and the root Neck - constricted junction line in the tooth between the crown and the root Root - one to three projections of the tooth that are embedded in the sockets of the alveolar processes of the mandible and maxillae Root - one to three projections of the tooth that are embedded in the sockets of the alveolar processes of the mandible and maxillae

34 Tooth Structures

35 Composition of Teeth Enamel - outermost portion of the tooth, protects the tooth from wear and tear Enamel - outermost portion of the tooth, protects the tooth from wear and tear –the hardest substance in the body Dentin - calcified connective tissue that gives the tooth its basic shape and rigidity Dentin - calcified connective tissue that gives the tooth its basic shape and rigidity Pulp Cavity - large cavity enclosed by the dentin that is filled with pulp Pulp Cavity - large cavity enclosed by the dentin that is filled with pulp Cementum - a bone-like substance that covers the dentin of the root Cementum - a bone-like substance that covers the dentin of the root

36 Periodontal Ligament An area of dense fibrous connective tissue attached to the socket walls and the cemental surface of the roots of the teeth An area of dense fibrous connective tissue attached to the socket walls and the cemental surface of the roots of the teeth Anchors teeth in position Anchors teeth in position Serves as a shock absorber when chewing Serves as a shock absorber when chewing

37 Swallowing (Deglutition) Moving food from the mouth to the stomach Moving food from the mouth to the stomach Voluntary Stage - bolus is moved through the mouth into the oropharynx Voluntary Stage - bolus is moved through the mouth into the oropharynx Pharyngeal Stage - involuntary passage of the bolus through the pharynx and into the esophagus Pharyngeal Stage - involuntary passage of the bolus through the pharynx and into the esophagus Esophageal Stage - involuntary passage of the bolus through the esophagus and into the stomach Esophageal Stage - involuntary passage of the bolus through the esophagus and into the stomach

38 Biting off more than you can deglutition.

39 Swallowing

40 Deglutition

41 Digestive Processes Mastication – chewing Mastication – chewing Maceration – muscular waves in the stomach which mix food with gastric juice to form a liquid paste called chyme. Maceration – muscular waves in the stomach which mix food with gastric juice to form a liquid paste called chyme. Segmentation – Short, small mixing movements of the alimentary canal. Segmentation – Short, small mixing movements of the alimentary canal.

42 Digestive Processes Peristalsis – wave-like smooth muscle contractions which help to propel food and wastes along the alimentary canal. Peristalsis – wave-like smooth muscle contractions which help to propel food and wastes along the alimentary canal. Haustral Churning – movement of wastes along the large intestine by the contraction of the pouches or the haustra. Haustral Churning – movement of wastes along the large intestine by the contraction of the pouches or the haustra.

43 Features of the Stomach Cardiac Region – where the stomach is connected to the esophagus. Cardiac Region – where the stomach is connected to the esophagus. Fundus – the rounded, superior area of the stomach that acts as a temporary storage for food. Fundus – the rounded, superior area of the stomach that acts as a temporary storage for food. Body – the large, central portion of the stomach below the fundus. Body – the large, central portion of the stomach below the fundus.

44 Features of the Stomach Pylorus – the narrow, inferior region of the stomach. Pylorus – the narrow, inferior region of the stomach. Rugae – the folds in the stomach that allow for stretching of the stomach with the intake of food. Rugae – the folds in the stomach that allow for stretching of the stomach with the intake of food. Pyloric Sphincter – the one-way valve located between the stomach and the duodenum. Pyloric Sphincter – the one-way valve located between the stomach and the duodenum.

45 Structures of the Stomach

46 Stomach Structures

47 Secretory Cells of the Gastric Glands Chief Cells Chief Cells –Digestive enzymes –Pepsinogen activated by HCl and converted to –Pepsin Parietal Cells Parietal Cells –HCl –Intrinsic Factor (absorption of Vitamin B12) Goblet Cells Goblet Cells –Secrete mucus to protect the stomach mucosa from the acidic environment

48 Gastric Gland

49

50 Mechanical Digestion in the Stomach Several minutes after food enters, the stomach generates mixing waves that churns the food inside - maceration Several minutes after food enters, the stomach generates mixing waves that churns the food inside - maceration Food mixes with gastric juices and is converted into a thin liquid called chyme Food mixes with gastric juices and is converted into a thin liquid called chyme

51 Chemical Digestion in the Stomach Cephalic Phase - reflexes initiated by sensory receptors in the head Cephalic Phase - reflexes initiated by sensory receptors in the head –sight- smell - taste –thought of food Gastric Phase - sensory receptors in the alimentary canal and stomach initiate nervous and hormonal chemical digestive processes Gastric Phase - sensory receptors in the alimentary canal and stomach initiate nervous and hormonal chemical digestive processes Intestinal Phase - secretion of stomach enzymes that removes nutrients from food Intestinal Phase - secretion of stomach enzymes that removes nutrients from food

52 Absorption in the Stomach Does not participate in the absorption of food molecules into the blood Does not participate in the absorption of food molecules into the blood However, can absorb some substances through the stomach wall However, can absorb some substances through the stomach wall –Water –Weak glucose concentrations –Electrolytes –Certain drugs (aspirin) –Alcohol

53 Pancreas Oblong gland that lies posterior to the greater curvature of the stomach Oblong gland that lies posterior to the greater curvature of the stomach Connected by ducts to the duodenum Connected by ducts to the duodenum Composed of clusters of glandular epithelial cells Composed of clusters of glandular epithelial cells Two main types of Pancreatic Cells: Two main types of Pancreatic Cells: –Pancreatic Islets-Islets of Langerhans (1%) Hormones: insulin, glucagon, somatostatin Hormones: insulin, glucagon, somatostatin –Acini Cells (99%) Digestive pancreatic enzymes Digestive pancreatic enzymes

54 Pancreas

55 Pancreatic Juice Alkaline mixture of fluid and digestive enzymes from the acini cells Alkaline mixture of fluid and digestive enzymes from the acini cells Pancreatic digestive enzymes: Pancreatic digestive enzymes: –Pancreatic amylase - carbohydrate digestion –Pancreatic lipase - fat digestion –Chymotrypsin-Trypsin-Carboxypeptidase - protein digestion –Nucleases - nucleic acid digestion Regulated by the intestinal hormones secretin and cholecystokinin Regulated by the intestinal hormones secretin and cholecystokinin

56 Liver Located just under the diaphragm on the right side of the body Located just under the diaphragm on the right side of the body Largest organ of the abdominal-pelvic cavity Largest organ of the abdominal-pelvic cavity Weighs about 1.4 kgs (3 lbs) Weighs about 1.4 kgs (3 lbs) Called the chemical factory of the body Called the chemical factory of the body Completely covered by the peritoneum and a dense layer of connective tissue beneath the peritoneum Completely covered by the peritoneum and a dense layer of connective tissue beneath the peritoneum

57 Anatomy of the Liver Right Lobe - largest lobe of the liver Right Lobe - largest lobe of the liver –Located on the lateral-right side of the body Caudate Lobe - posterior portion of right lobe Caudate Lobe - posterior portion of right lobe Quadrate Lobe - inferior portion of right lobe Quadrate Lobe - inferior portion of right lobe Left Lobe - smaller, medial lobe of the liver Left Lobe - smaller, medial lobe of the liver Falciform Ligament - separates the right and left lobes of the liver and anchors it to the diaphragm and anterior abdominal wall Falciform Ligament - separates the right and left lobes of the liver and anchors it to the diaphragm and anterior abdominal wall

58 Liver and Pancreas

59 Lobules of the Liver Smaller functional units of the liver Smaller functional units of the liver Hepatocytes in the lobules produce and secrete a yellowish, brownish, or olive green liquid called bile (1 quart daily) Hepatocytes in the lobules produce and secrete a yellowish, brownish, or olive green liquid called bile (1 quart daily) –Composed of bile salts and pigments, lecithin, and several ions –pH of –Excretory product and digestive secretion –Assists in the breakdown of fat molecules (emulsification) –Principle bile pigment is bilirubin

60 Functions of the Liver Metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins Metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins Removal of drugs and hormones Removal of drugs and hormones Excretion of bile Excretion of bile Synthesis of bile salts Synthesis of bile salts Storage of vitamins, minerals, and food molecules Storage of vitamins, minerals, and food molecules Phagocytosis of old worn out red and white blood cells Phagocytosis of old worn out red and white blood cells Activation of Vitamin D Activation of Vitamin D

61 The Gallbladder A pear shaped sac about cm long A pear shaped sac about cm long Located on the inferior surface of the liver Located on the inferior surface of the liver Stores and concentrates bile until it is needed by the small intestine for the emulsification of fat Stores and concentrates bile until it is needed by the small intestine for the emulsification of fat

62 Gallbladder

63 Bile Pathway

64 The Small Intestine Duodenum - the beginning of the small intestine where it attaches to the stomach Duodenum - the beginning of the small intestine where it attaches to the stomach –First 6 inches Jejunum - the portion of the small intestine right after the duodenum Jejunum - the portion of the small intestine right after the duodenum –Normally about 8 ft. long Ileum - the final portion of the small intestine Ileum - the final portion of the small intestine –About 12 ft. long –Ileocecal valve

65 The Small Intestine

66 Wall of Duodenum

67 Villi in Duodenum

68 Chemical Digestion of the Small Intestine Complex series of chemical events that results in the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins Complex series of chemical events that results in the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins Result of the collective effort of pancreatic juice, bile, and intestinal juice which contain digestive enzymes Result of the collective effort of pancreatic juice, bile, and intestinal juice which contain digestive enzymes Results in absorption - passage of digested nutrients into the blood or lymph Results in absorption - passage of digested nutrients into the blood or lymph

69 Mechanisms to Increase Absorption by the Small Intestines Folds in the intestinal walls of the mucosa layer of tissue (Plicae Circulares) Folds in the intestinal walls of the mucosa layer of tissue (Plicae Circulares) Villi arrangement of tissue of mucosa layer Villi arrangement of tissue of mucosa layer –Lacteals - blood capillaries and lymphatic vessels associated with each villi Microvilli arrangement of epithelial cells of the mucosa Microvilli arrangement of epithelial cells of the mucosa

70 Plicae Circulares

71 Villi of Small Intestine

72 Villi with Lacteal

73 Lining of Ileum

74 Absorption in the Small Intestine 90% of absorption takes place within the small intestine 90% of absorption takes place within the small intestine –Remaining 10% occurs in the stomach and large intestine Absorption of nutrients occurs through the villi by means of: Absorption of nutrients occurs through the villi by means of: –diffusion- facilitated diffusion –osmosis- active transport

75 Small Intestine Absorption

76 Nutrient Absorption

77 Additional Components of the Small Intestine Intestinal Juice - slightly alkaline secretion (pH 7.6) secreted by intestinal glands Intestinal Juice - slightly alkaline secretion (pH 7.6) secreted by intestinal glands –rapidly absorbed by the villi and provides a mechanism for absorption of substances in chyme Peyer’s Patches - lymphatic glands of the small intestine Peyer’s Patches - lymphatic glands of the small intestine Brunner’s Glands - mucus secreting glands of the small intestine Brunner’s Glands - mucus secreting glands of the small intestine

78 Mechanical Digestion of the Small Intestine Segmentation - localized contraction of muscles of the small intestine in areas containing food Segmentation - localized contraction of muscles of the small intestine in areas containing food –Rate of about contractions/minute –Sloshing of chyme back and forth within the intestinal lumen Peristalsis - rhythmical contraction of muscles of the small intestines that propels chyme through the intestinal tract Peristalsis - rhythmical contraction of muscles of the small intestines that propels chyme through the intestinal tract

79 The Large Intestine About 1.5 m (5 ft) in length About 1.5 m (5 ft) in length Cecum - beginning of the large intestine Cecum - beginning of the large intestine –Vermiform appendix Colon - large tube-like portion of large intestine Colon - large tube-like portion of large intestine –Ascending colon - Transverse colon –Descending colon - Sigmoid colon Rectum Rectum Anal Canal Anal Canal Anus Anus

80 Large Intestine Structures

81 Functions of the Large Intestine Completion of absorption Completion of absorption Reabsorption of water Reabsorption of water Manufacture of certain vitamins Manufacture of certain vitamins Formation of feces Formation of feces Expulsion of feces from the body Expulsion of feces from the body

82 Histology of the Large Intestine Walls of the large intestine contain no villi or permanent circular folds in the mucosa layer Walls of the large intestine contain no villi or permanent circular folds in the mucosa layer Epithelial tissue layer contain numerous goblet cells (secretes mucus) Epithelial tissue layer contain numerous goblet cells (secretes mucus) Lubricates the colonic contents as it passes through the large intestine Lubricates the colonic contents as it passes through the large intestine

83 Haustra - series of characteristic pouch like structures that run the entire length of the colon Haustra - series of characteristic pouch like structures that run the entire length of the colon Taenia Coli - bands of smooth muscle that are arranged longitudinally along the length of the colon Taenia Coli - bands of smooth muscle that are arranged longitudinally along the length of the colon Anal Columns - parallel ridges of mucosa in the anal canal which reduces friction with feces during defecation Anal Columns - parallel ridges of mucosa in the anal canal which reduces friction with feces during defecation

84 Large Intestine Histology

85

86 Mechanical Digestion in the Large Intestine Haustral Churning - the relaxation and contraction of the individual segments of the colon Haustral Churning - the relaxation and contraction of the individual segments of the colon Peristalsis - rhythmical contraction of the colon that moves the contents along through the length of the colon Peristalsis - rhythmical contraction of the colon that moves the contents along through the length of the colon Mass Peristalsis - a strong peristaltic wave that begins about the middle of the transverse colon and drives the colonic contents into the rectum Mass Peristalsis - a strong peristaltic wave that begins about the middle of the transverse colon and drives the colonic contents into the rectum

87 Chemical Digestion in the Large Intestine Last stage of digestion Last stage of digestion Due to bacterial action in the large intestine Due to bacterial action in the large intestine Bacteria ferment any remaining carbohydrates and release hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane gas Bacteria ferment any remaining carbohydrates and release hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane gas Also converts any remaining proteins into amino acids Also converts any remaining proteins into amino acids Absorbs any remaining water and electrolytes Absorbs any remaining water and electrolytes

88 Feces Formation in the Large Intestine By the time chyme has remained in the large intestine for hours it has become a solid or semi-solid and is known as feces By the time chyme has remained in the large intestine for hours it has become a solid or semi-solid and is known as feces Consists of water, inorganic salts, sloughed off epithelial cells, products from bacterial decomposition, and indigestible parts of food Consists of water, inorganic salts, sloughed off epithelial cells, products from bacterial decomposition, and indigestible parts of food

89 Defecation The emptying of the rectum The emptying of the rectum Diarrhea - frequent defecation of liquid feces Diarrhea - frequent defecation of liquid feces Constipation - infrequent or difficult defecation Constipation - infrequent or difficult defecation

90 Digestive System Diseases and Homeostatic Imbalances

91 Appendicitis Inflammation of the vermiform appendix Inflammation of the vermiform appendix Can be caused by an obstruction of the lumen of the appendix by fecal material, a foreign body, stenosis, kinking of the organ, or carcinoma Can be caused by an obstruction of the lumen of the appendix by fecal material, a foreign body, stenosis, kinking of the organ, or carcinoma

92 Cirrhosis of the Liver Distorted or scarred liver tissue due to chronic inflammation Distorted or scarred liver tissue due to chronic inflammation Commonly caused by hepatitis, chemical exposure, parasites, and alcoholism Commonly caused by hepatitis, chemical exposure, parasites, and alcoholism Symptoms include: jaundice, bleeding, edema, and increased sensitivity to drugs and chemicals Symptoms include: jaundice, bleeding, edema, and increased sensitivity to drugs and chemicals

93 Tumors of the Digestive System Can occur in all areas of the digestive system Can occur in all areas of the digestive system Can be malignant or benign Can be malignant or benign Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer –3rd most common cause of cancer for both males and females –Overall mortality rate is over 60% –Factors contributing to colorectal cancer include genetic predisposition, diet high in fat, protein, insufficient dietary fiber, and low calcium and selenium in the diet

94 Gall Stones Crystallization of bile in the gallbladder Crystallization of bile in the gallbladder Can block the bile duct causing intense pain Can block the bile duct causing intense pain Usually treated with gall stone dissolving drugs, lithotripsy, or surgery Usually treated with gall stone dissolving drugs, lithotripsy, or surgery

95 Hepatitis Inflammation of the liver Inflammation of the liver Can be caused by viruses, drugs, and certain chemicals including steroids and alcohol Can be caused by viruses, drugs, and certain chemicals including steroids and alcohol Many different types of Hepatitis including: Many different types of Hepatitis including: –Hepatitis A (Infectious Hepatitis) –Hepatitis B (Serum Hepatitis)

96 Hepatitis A Infectious hepatitis Infectious hepatitis Caused by Hepatitis A virus Caused by Hepatitis A virus Spread by fecal contamination of food, clothing, toys, eating utensils, etc. Spread by fecal contamination of food, clothing, toys, eating utensils, etc. Generally a mild disease of children and young adults Generally a mild disease of children and young adults Characterized by anorexia, malaise, jaundice, nausea, diarrhea, fever, and chills Characterized by anorexia, malaise, jaundice, nausea, diarrhea, fever, and chills

97 Hepatitis B Serum hepatitis Serum hepatitis Caused by the Hepatitis B virus Caused by the Hepatitis B virus Transmitted by sexual contact, contaminated syringes, transfusion equipment, saliva, tears, and puncture wounds in the skin Transmitted by sexual contact, contaminated syringes, transfusion equipment, saliva, tears, and puncture wounds in the skin Can produce cirrhosis and possibly cancer of the liver Can produce cirrhosis and possibly cancer of the liver

98 Obesity Clinically classified as obese if: Clinically classified as obese if: –> 30% of projected body weight as determined height and frame size –doesn’t factor in Body Composition Currently over 50% of U.S. population is clinically classified as obese Currently over 50% of U.S. population is clinically classified as obese 14% of all male cancers linked to obesity 14% of all male cancers linked to obesity 20% of all female cancers linked to obesity 20% of all female cancers linked to obesity

99 U.S. surgeon general has said Obesity is the second most serious threat to the health of Americans U.S. surgeon general has said Obesity is the second most serious threat to the health of Americans A serious risk factor for: A serious risk factor for: –Heart Disease- Diabetes –Hypertension- Cancers –Respiratory Disorders –Endocrine Disorders –Gastrointestinal Disorders –Urinary and Reproductive System Disorders

100 Peptic Ulcers Crater like lesions that develop in the gastrointestinal tract Crater like lesions that develop in the gastrointestinal tract Gastric Ulcers ---> Stomach Gastric Ulcers ---> Stomach Duodenal Ulcers ---> Duodenum Duodenal Ulcers ---> Duodenum Commonly caused by hypersecretion of gastric juices and acids Commonly caused by hypersecretion of gastric juices and acids Contributing factors include: stress, cigarette smoking, certain foods, some medications, and bacterial infections Contributing factors include: stress, cigarette smoking, certain foods, some medications, and bacterial infections


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